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Sanjay Sharma, Mahen Konwar, Diganta Kumar Sarma, M. C. R. Kalapureddy, and A. R. Jain

Abstract

In the present study the characteristics of rain integral parameters during tropical convective (C), transition (T), and stratiform (S) types of rain are studied with the help of Joss–Waldvogel disdrometer (JWD), L-band, and very-high-frequency wind profilers at Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.20°E). The classifications of three regimes are made with the help of an L-band wind profiler. For rain rate R < 10 mm h−1 larger drops are found in S type of rain relative to C and T rain, and for R ≥ 10 mm h−1 larger drops are found in convective rain. Empirical relations are developed for DmR, DmZ, N*0R, ZR, and Z/DmR by fitting the power-law equations. Event to event, no systematic variation of the coefficients and exponents could be found for ZR and Z/DmR relations during the three types of rain. Overall, the C and S events are found to be number controlled, and T events are size controlled. During C type of rain, bigger mean raindrops are found during the presence of strong updrafts. During S type of rain, bigger mean raindrops are found to be associated with the higher mean thickness of the bright band and strong velocity gradient. For each of the developed empirical relations, the correlation coefficients are found in the order of T > C > S rain. During the three types of rain, correlations are found in the order of Z/D mR > ZR > DmZ > DmR. Significant improvement is observed in rain retrieval by using the Z/DmR relation relative to the conventional ZR relation. By utilizing the Z/DmR relations, the root-mean-square error was reduced by 19%–46%.

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P. C. S. Devara, P. E. Raj, K. K. Dani, G. Pandithurai, M. C. R. Kalapureddy, S. M. Sonbawne, Y. J. Rao, and S. K. Saha

Abstract

Lidar profiling of atmospheric aerosols and clouds in the lower atmosphere has been in progress at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune (18°32′N, 73°52′E, 559 m MSL), India, for more than two decades. To enlarge the scope of these studies, an eye-safe new portable dual polarization micropulse lidar (DPMPL) has been developed and installed at this station. The system utilizes a diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) neodymium–yttrium–aluminum–garnet (Nd:YAG) laser second harmonic, with either parallel polarization or alternate parallel and perpendicular polarization, as a transmitter and a Schmidt–Cassegrain telescope, with a high-speed detection and data acquisition and processing system, as a receiver. This online system in real-time mode provides backscatter intensity profiles up to about 75 km at every minute in both parallel and perpendicular polarization channels, corresponding to each state of polarization of the transmitted laser radiation. Thus, this versatile lidar system is expected to play a vital role not only in atmospheric aerosol and cloud physics research and environmental monitoring but also in weather and climate modeling studies of the impact of radiative forcing on the earth–atmosphere radiation balance and hydrological cycle. This paper provides a detailed description of Asia’s only lidar facility and presents initial observations of space–time variations of boundary layer structure from experiments carried out during winter 2005/06.

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