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D. R. Smith, R. S. Weinbeck, I. W. Geer, J. T. Snow, K. M. Ginger, and J. M. Moran

Project ATMOSPHERE, the K–12 educational program of the American Meteorological Society, has been involved in teacher enhancement for four years. Summer workshops for teachers have been a primary component of the AMS K–12 educational initiatives since its inception. During the summer of 1994, Project ATMOSPHERE conducted four workshops: two of the workshops were for teachers in the Atmospheric Education Resource Agent program; another was for K–12 teachers, including one teacher each from Canada and Australia; and the fourth was for faculty members at community colleges or four-year undergraduate institutions. These workshops provide teachers at all levels with instruction on a variety of atmospheric topics, an introduction to the operational and research activities of the meteorological community, and exposure to atmospheric scientists and their facilities. Such workshops provide enriching experiences for educators who teach about weather and climate topics in their science classrooms.

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P. A. Phoebus, D. R. Smith, R. A. McPherson, M. J. Hayes, J. M. Moran, P. J. Croft, J. T. Snow, E. S. Takle, R. L. Fauquet, L. M. Bastiaans, and J. W. Zeitler

The American Meteorological Society (AMS) held its Seventh Symposium on Education in conjunction with the 78th AMS Annual Meeting. The theme of the symposium was “Atmospheric and Oceanographic Education: Advancing Our Awareness.” Thirty-six oral presentations and 47 poster presentations summarized a variety of educational programs or examined educational issues relevant for both the precollege and university levels.

There were also joint sessions held with the Second Conference on Coastal Atmospheric and Oceanic Prediction and Processes and the Ninth Conference on Interaction of the Sea and Atmosphere, as well as the 10th Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instruments. Over 200 people representing a wide spectrum of the Society attended one or more of the sessions during this two-day event.

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W. P. Kustas, D.C. Goodrich, M.S. Moran, S. A. Amer, L. B. Bach, J. H. Blanford, A. Chehbouni, H. Claassen, W. E. Clements, P. C. Doraiswamy, P. Dubois, T. R. Clarke, C. S. T. Daughtry, D. I. Gellman, T. A. Grant, L. E. Hipps, A. R. Huete, K. S. Humes, T. J. Jackson, T. O. Keefer, W. D. Nichols, R. Parry, E. M. Perry, R. T. Pinker, P. J. Pinter Jr., J. Qi, A. C. Riggs, T. J. Schmugge, A. M. Shutko, D. I. Stannard, E. Swiatek, J. D. van Leeuwen, J. van Zyl, A. Vidal, J. Washburne, and M. A. Weltz

Arid and semiarid rangelands comprise a significant portion of the earth's land surface. Yet little is known about the effects of temporal and spatial changes in surface soil moisture on the hydrologic cycle, energy balance, and the feedbacks to the atmosphere via thermal forcing over such environments. Understanding this interrelationship is crucial for evaluating the role of the hydrologic cycle in surface–atmosphere interactions.

This study focuses on the utility of remote sensing to provide measurements of surface soil moisture, surface albedo, vegetation biomass, and temperature at different spatial and temporal scales. Remote-sensing measurements may provide the only practical means of estimating some of the more important factors controlling land surface processes over large areas. Consequently, the use of remotely sensed information in biophysical and geophysical models greatly enhances their ability to compute fluxes at catchment and regional scales on a routine basis. However, model calculations for different climates and ecosystems need verification. This requires that the remotely sensed data and model computations be evaluated with ground-truth data collected at the same areal scales.

The present study (MONSOON 90) attempts to address this issue for semiarid rangelands. The experimental plan included remotely sensed data in the visible, near-infrared, thermal, and microwave wavelengths from ground and aircraft platforms and, when available, from satellites. Collected concurrently were ground measurements of soil moisture and temperature, energy and water fluxes, and profile data in the atmospheric boundary layer in a hydrologically instrumented semiarid rangeland watershed. Field experiments were conducted in 1990 during the dry and wet or “monsoon season” for the southwestern United States. A detailed description of the field campaigns, including measurements and some preliminary results are given.

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