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Mariano A. Estoque

Abstract

A method for estimating environmental temperature and moisture increases due to penetrative convection is discussed. The estimates depend on the upward flux across the earth surface, the large-scale horizontal convergence, and the variation of entrainment of outside air by the convective element with height. The effect of thermals originating at the surface layer as well as those at upper levels are incorporated. The method could be generalized to include the exchange of other atmospheric properties such as momentum and atmospheric pollutants. An application of the method to determine the heating of the environment by dry convection is described.

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Mariano A. Estoque

Abstract

An attempt to incorporate the effect of sloping terrain in a two-level model is presented. The resulting prediction equations may be integrated by graphical techniques. To derive the equations, it is necessary to prescribe an analytic expression for the vertical velocity profile. An actual forecast made with use of the model indicates that considerable improvement may be obtained over forecasts based on models which do not take into account orographic effects.

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Mariano A. Estoque

Abstract

The three-dimensional structure and behavior of a lake-land breeze circulation system induced by Lake Ontario for a selected 24 h period is presented. The structure is determined from observations made during the International Field Year of the Great Lakes. The case which has been studied occurred when the large-scale prevailing flow was blowing from the south at relatively low speeds. The study shows that the lake induces a broad belt of easterlies over the take in the afternoon and the early evening. It also indicates that the lake breeze is more likely to occur over the southwestern coastal regions than over the southeastern coastal regions. During the early morning hours, surface wind convergence occurs over the northeastern shoreline but not over the northwestern shoreline.

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MARIANO A. ESTOQUE

Abstract

Wind observations in the planetary boundary layer over an atoll near the Equator were made using the double-theodolite pilot balloon method. The observed mean wind profile is representative of boundary layer flow over a homogeneous surface with a very low value of the Coriolis parameter. The wind is predominantly easterly with a small backing with height. Analysis of the wind profile suggests that the component of motion along east-west direction is approximately geostrophic; however, the component along the north-south direction is highly nongeostrophic. The analysis also indicates that the change in the wind direction with height is controlled mainly by the height variation of the horizontal pressure gradient.

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George S. Benton
and
Mariano A. Estoque

Abstract

The transfer of water in vapor form by the atmosphere is presented for the calendar year 1949. Monthly and seasonal patterns of moisture flow are evaluated, and it is shown that there is a close relationship between these patterns and the distribution of precipitation. The importance of eddy systems in effecting moisture transfer is examined, and the meridional flow of vapor over the North American sector is compared with the average for the Northern Hemisphere. Divergence fields of water-vapor transfer are used in conjunction with a mass-continuity equation for water to compute evapotranspiration over the North American continent. Hydrologic data verify these computations to a remarkable degree.

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Mariano A. Estoque
and
James M. Gross

Abstract

The three-dimensional structure and behavior of the lake-land breeze circulation which is induced by Lake Ontario is studied by means of a numerical model. The model is a primitive equation model which incorporates the effects of orography and the temperature prediction of the earth surface. A series of integrations is made in order to examine the effects of the large-scale prevailing flow and orography. These effects, which are found to be important in determining the structure of the lake-induced mesoscale flow pattern, are described in detail. One of the integrations corresponds to a simulation of an actually observed lake-land breeze circulation. Comparison between the simulated and the observed structures shows good agreement.

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Jose J. Fernandez-Partagas
and
Mariano A. Estoque

Abstract

Relationships between convergence and rainfall at subsynoptic scales of motion are studied observationally. Data are based on special surface wind and rainfall observations in the South Florida peninsula during the period 11–13 July 1971. It is shown that larger scale convergence produces smaller scale convergence which, in turn, induces rainfall. The convective rainfall lags behind the large (peninsular) scale convergence by approximately 2 hr. In addition, the smaller scale divergence associated with rainfall produces larger scale divergence. The importance of the results in relation to parameterization and short-range forecasting of convective rainfall is discussed.

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