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Andrew Heymsfield
,
Martina Krämer
,
Norman B. Wood
,
Andrew Gettelman
,
Paul R. Field
, and
Guosheng Liu

Abstract

Cloud ice microphysical properties measured or estimated from in situ aircraft observations are compared with global climate models and satellite active remote sensor retrievals. Two large datasets, with direct measurements of the ice water content (IWC) and encompassing data from polar to tropical regions, are combined to yield a large database of in situ measurements. The intention of this study is to identify strengths and weaknesses of the various methods used to derive ice cloud microphysical properties. The in situ data are measured with total water hygrometers, condensed water probes, and particle spectrometers. Data from polar, midlatitude, and tropical locations are included. The satellite data are retrieved from CloudSat/CALIPSO [the CloudSat Ice Cloud Property Product (2C-ICE) and 2C-SNOW-PROFILE] and Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Level2A. Although the 2C-ICE retrieval is for IWC, a method to use the IWC to get snowfall rates S is developed. The GPM retrievals are for snowfall rate only. Model results are derived using the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) and the Met Office Unified Model [Global Atmosphere 7 (GA7)]. The retrievals and model results are related to the in situ observations using temperature and are partitioned by geographical region. Specific variables compared between the in situ observations, models, and retrievals are the IWC and S. Satellite-retrieved IWCs are reasonably close in value to the in situ observations, whereas the models’ values are relatively low by comparison. Differences between the in situ IWCs and those from the other methods are compounded when S is considered, leading to model snowfall rates that are considerably lower than those derived from the in situ data. Anomalous trends with temperature are noted in some instances.

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Andrew J. Heymsfield
,
Martina Krämer
,
Anna Luebke
,
Phil Brown
,
Daniel J. Cziczo
,
Charmaine Franklin
,
Paul Lawson
,
Ulrike Lohmann
,
Greg McFarquhar
,
Zbigniew Ulanowski
, and
Kristof Van Tricht

Abstract

The goal of this chapter is to synthesize information about what is now known about one of the three main types of clouds, cirrus, and to identify areas where more knowledge is needed. Cirrus clouds, composed of ice particles, form in the upper troposphere, where temperatures are generally below −30°C. Satellite observations show that the maximum-occurrence frequency of cirrus is near the tropics, with a large latitudinal movement seasonally. In situ measurements obtained over a wide range of cirrus types, formation mechanisms, temperatures, and geographical locations indicate that the ice water content and particle size generally decrease with decreasing temperature, whereas the ice particle concentration is nearly constant or increases slightly with decreasing temperature. High ice concentrations, sometimes observed in strong updrafts, result from homogeneous nucleation. The satellite-based and in situ measurements indicate that cirrus ice crystals typically differ from the simple, idealized geometry for smooth hexagonal shapes, indicating complexity and/or surface roughness. Their shapes significantly impact cirrus radiative properties and feedbacks to climate. Cirrus clouds, one of the most uncertain components of general circulation models (GCM), pose one of the greatest challenges in predicting the rate and geographical pattern of climate change. Improved measurements of the properties and size distributions and surface structure of small ice crystals (about 20 μm) and identifying the dominant ice nucleation process (heterogeneous versus homogeneous ice nucleation) under different cloud dynamical forcings will lead to a better representation of their properties in GCM and in modeling their current and future effects on climate.

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Zamin A. Kanji
,
Luis A. Ladino
,
Heike Wex
,
Yvonne Boose
,
Monika Burkert-Kohn
,
Daniel J. Cziczo
, and
Martina Krämer

Abstract

Ice particle formation in tropospheric clouds significantly changes cloud radiative and microphysical properties. Ice nucleation in the troposphere via homogeneous freezing occurs at temperatures lower than −38°C and relative humidity with respect to ice above 140%. In the absence of these conditions, ice formation can proceed via heterogeneous nucleation aided by aerosol particles known as ice nucleating particles (INPs). In this chapter, new developments in identifying the heterogeneous freezing mechanisms, atmospheric relevance, uncertainties, and unknowns about INPs are described. The change in conventional wisdom regarding the requirements of INPs as new studies discover physical and chemical properties of these particles is explained. INP sources and known reasons for their ice nucleating properties are presented. The need for more studies to systematically identify particle properties that facilitate ice nucleation is highlighted. The atmospheric relevance of long-range transport, aerosol aging, and coating studies (in the laboratory) of INPs are also presented. Possible mechanisms for processes that change the ice nucleating potential of INPs and the corresponding challenges in understanding and applying these in models are discussed. How primary ice nucleation affects total ice crystal number concentrations in clouds and the discrepancy between INP concentrations and ice crystal number concentrations are presented. Finally, limitations of parameterizing INPs and of models in representing known and unknown processes related to heterogeneous ice nucleation processes are discussed.

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Emma Järvinen
,
Martin Schnaiter
,
Guillaume Mioche
,
Olivier Jourdan
,
Valery N. Shcherbakov
,
Anja Costa
,
Armin Afchine
,
Martina Krämer
,
Fabian Heidelberg
,
Tina Jurkat
,
Christiane Voigt
,
Hans Schlager
,
Leonid Nichman
,
Martin Gallagher
,
Edwin Hirst
,
Carl Schmitt
,
Aaron Bansemer
,
Andy Heymsfield
,
Paul Lawson
,
Ugo Tricoli
,
Klaus Pfeilsticker
,
Paul Vochezer
,
Ottmar Möhler
, and
Thomas Leisner

Abstract

Homogeneous freezing of supercooled droplets occurs in convective systems in low and midlatitudes. This droplet-freezing process leads to the formation of a large amount of small ice particles, so-called frozen droplets, that are transported to the upper parts of anvil outflows, where they can influence the cloud radiative properties. However, the detailed microphysics and, thus, the scattering properties of these small ice particles are highly uncertain. Here, the link between the microphysical and optical properties of frozen droplets is investigated in cloud chamber experiments, where the frozen droplets were formed, grown, and sublimated under controlled conditions. It was found that frozen droplets developed a high degree of small-scale complexity after their initial formation and subsequent growth. During sublimation, the small-scale complexity disappeared, releasing a smooth and near-spherical ice particle. Angular light scattering and depolarization measurements confirmed that these sublimating frozen droplets scattered light similar to spherical particles: that is, they had angular light-scattering properties similar to water droplets. The knowledge gained from this laboratory study was applied to two case studies of aircraft measurements in midlatitude and tropical convective systems. The in situ aircraft measurements confirmed that the microphysics of frozen droplets is dependent on the humidity conditions they are exposed to (growth or sublimation). The existence of optically spherical frozen droplets can be important for the radiative properties of detraining convective outflows.

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Hermann Oelhaf
,
Björn-Martin Sinnhuber
,
Wolfgang Woiwode
,
Harald Bönisch
,
Heiko Bozem
,
Andreas Engel
,
Andreas Fix
,
Felix Friedl-Vallon
,
Jens-Uwe Grooß
,
Peter Hoor
,
Sören Johansson
,
Tina Jurkat-Witschas
,
Stefan Kaufmann
,
Martina Krämer
,
Jens Krause
,
Erik Kretschmer
,
Dominique Lörks
,
Andreas Marsing
,
Johannes Orphal
,
Klaus Pfeilsticker
,
Michael Pitts
,
Lamont Poole
,
Peter Preusse
,
Markus Rapp
,
Martin Riese
,
Christian Rolf
,
Jörn Ungermann
,
Christiane Voigt
,
C. Michael Volk
,
Martin Wirth
,
Andreas Zahn
, and
Helmut Ziereis

Abstract

The Polar Stratosphere in a Changing Climate (POLSTRACC) mission employed the German High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO). The payload comprised an innovative combination of remote sensing and in situ instruments. The in situ instruments provided high-resolution observations of cirrus and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), a large number of reactive and long-lived trace gases, and temperature at the aircraft level. Information above and underneath the aircraft level was achieved by remote sensing instruments as well as dropsondes. The mission took place from 8 December 2015 to 18 March 2016, covering the extremely cold late December to early February period and the time around the major warming in the beginning of March. In 18 scientific deployments, 156 flight hours were conducted, covering latitudes from 25° to 87°N and maximum altitudes of almost 15 km, and reaching potential temperature levels of up to 410 K. Highlights of results include 1) new aspects of transport and mixing in the Arctic upper troposphere–lower stratosphere (UTLS), 2) detailed analyses of special dynamical features such as tropopause folds, 3) observations of extended PSCs reaching sometimes down to HALO flight levels at 13–14 km, 4) observations of particulate NOy and vertical redistribution of gas-phase NOy in the lowermost stratosphere (LMS), 5) significant chlorine activation and deactivation in the LMS along with halogen source gas observations, and 6) the partitioning and budgets of reactive chlorine and bromine along with a detailed study of the efficiency of ClOx/BrOx ozone loss cycle. Finally, we quantify—based on our results—the ozone loss in the 2015/16 winter and address the question of how extraordinary this Arctic winter was.

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Christiane Voigt
,
Ulrich Schumann
,
Andreas Minikin
,
Ahmed Abdelmonem
,
Armin Afchine
,
Stephan Borrmann
,
Maxi Boettcher
,
Bernhard Buchholz
,
Luca Bugliaro
,
Anja Costa
,
Joachim Curtius
,
Maximilian Dollner
,
Andreas Dörnbrack
,
Volker Dreiling
,
Volker Ebert
,
Andre Ehrlich
,
Andreas Fix
,
Linda Forster
,
Fabian Frank
,
Daniel Fütterer
,
Andreas Giez
,
Kaspar Graf
,
Jens-Uwe Grooß
,
Silke Groß
,
Katharina Heimerl
,
Bernd Heinold
,
Tilman Hüneke
,
Emma Järvinen
,
Tina Jurkat
,
Stefan Kaufmann
,
Mareike Kenntner
,
Marcus Klingebiel
,
Thomas Klimach
,
Rebecca Kohl
,
Martina Krämer
,
Trismono Candra Krisna
,
Anna Luebke
,
Bernhard Mayer
,
Stephan Mertes
,
Sergej Molleker
,
Andreas Petzold
,
Klaus Pfeilsticker
,
Max Port
,
Markus Rapp
,
Philipp Reutter
,
Christian Rolf
,
Diana Rose
,
Daniel Sauer
,
Andreas Schäfler
,
Romy Schlage
,
Martin Schnaiter
,
Johannes Schneider
,
Nicole Spelten
,
Peter Spichtinger
,
Paul Stock
,
Adrian Walser
,
Ralf Weigel
,
Bernadett Weinzierl
,
Manfred Wendisch
,
Frank Werner
,
Heini Wernli
,
Martin Wirth
,
Andreas Zahn
,
Helmut Ziereis
, and
Martin Zöger

Abstract

The Midlatitude Cirrus experiment (ML-CIRRUS) deployed the High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO) to obtain new insights into nucleation, life cycle, and climate impact of natural cirrus and aircraft-induced contrail cirrus. Direct observations of cirrus properties and their variability are still incomplete, currently limiting our understanding of the clouds’ impact on climate. Also, dynamical effects on clouds and feedbacks are not adequately represented in today’s weather prediction models.

Here, we present the rationale, objectives, and selected scientific highlights of ML-CIRRUS using the G-550 aircraft of the German atmospheric science community. The first combined in situ–remote sensing cloud mission with HALO united state-of-the-art cloud probes, a lidar and novel ice residual, aerosol, trace gas, and radiation instrumentation. The aircraft observations were accompanied by remote sensing from satellite and ground and by numerical simulations.

In spring 2014, HALO performed 16 flights above Europe with a focus on anthropogenic contrail cirrus and midlatitude cirrus induced by frontal systems including warm conveyor belts and other dynamical regimes (jet streams, mountain waves, and convection). Highlights from ML-CIRRUS include 1) new observations of microphysical and radiative cirrus properties and their variability in meteorological regimes typical for midlatitudes, 2) insights into occurrence of in situ–formed and lifted liquid-origin cirrus, 3) validation of cloud forecasts and satellite products, 4) assessment of contrail predictability, and 5) direct observations of contrail cirrus and their distinction from natural cirrus. Hence, ML-CIRRUS provides a comprehensive dataset on cirrus in the densely populated European midlatitudes with the scope to enhance our understanding of cirrus clouds and their role for climate and weather.

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Manfred Wendisch
,
Ulrich Pöschl
,
Meinrat O. Andreae
,
Luiz A. T. Machado
,
Rachel Albrecht
,
Hans Schlager
,
Daniel Rosenfeld
,
Scot T. Martin
,
Ahmed Abdelmonem
,
Armin Afchine
,
Alessandro C. Araùjo
,
Paulo Artaxo
,
Heinfried Aufmhoff
,
Henrique M. J. Barbosa
,
Stephan Borrmann
,
Ramon Braga
,
Bernhard Buchholz
,
Micael Amore Cecchini
,
Anja Costa
,
Joachim Curtius
,
Maximilian Dollner
,
Marcel Dorf
,
Volker Dreiling
,
Volker Ebert
,
André Ehrlich
,
Florian Ewald
,
Gilberto Fisch
,
Andreas Fix
,
Fabian Frank
,
Daniel Fütterer
,
Christopher Heckl
,
Fabian Heidelberg
,
Tilman Hüneke
,
Evelyn Jäkel
,
Emma Järvinen
,
Tina Jurkat
,
Sandra Kanter
,
Udo Kästner
,
Mareike Kenntner
,
Jürgen Kesselmeier
,
Thomas Klimach
,
Matthias Knecht
,
Rebecca Kohl
,
Tobias Kölling
,
Martina Krämer
,
Mira Krüger
,
Trismono Candra Krisna
,
Jost V. Lavric
,
Karla Longo
,
Christoph Mahnke
,
Antonio O. Manzi
,
Bernhard Mayer
,
Stephan Mertes
,
Andreas Minikin
,
Sergej Molleker
,
Steffen Münch
,
Björn Nillius
,
Klaus Pfeilsticker
,
Christopher Pöhlker
,
Anke Roiger
,
Diana Rose
,
Dagmar Rosenow
,
Daniel Sauer
,
Martin Schnaiter
,
Johannes Schneider
,
Christiane Schulz
,
Rodrigo A. F. de Souza
,
Antonio Spanu
,
Paul Stock
,
Daniel Vila
,
Christiane Voigt
,
Adrian Walser
,
David Walter
,
Ralf Weigel
,
Bernadett Weinzierl
,
Frank Werner
,
Marcia A. Yamasoe
,
Helmut Ziereis
,
Tobias Zinner
, and
Martin Zöger

Abstract

Between 1 September and 4 October 2014, a combined airborne and ground-based measurement campaign was conducted to study tropical deep convective clouds over the Brazilian Amazon rain forest. The new German research aircraft, High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO), a modified Gulfstream G550, and extensive ground-based instrumentation were deployed in and near Manaus (State of Amazonas). The campaign was part of the German–Brazilian Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Convective Cloud Systems–Cloud Processes of the Main Precipitation Systems in Brazil: A Contribution to Cloud Resolving Modeling and to the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement) (ACRIDICON– CHUVA) venture to quantify aerosol–cloud–precipitation interactions and their thermodynamic, dynamic, and radiative effects by in situ and remote sensing measurements over Amazonia. The ACRIDICON–CHUVA field observations were carried out in cooperation with the second intensive operating period of Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 (GoAmazon2014/5). In this paper we focus on the airborne data measured on HALO, which was equipped with about 30 in situ and remote sensing instruments for meteorological, trace gas, aerosol, cloud, precipitation, and spectral solar radiation measurements. Fourteen research flights with a total duration of 96 flight hours were performed. Five scientific topics were pursued: 1) cloud vertical evolution and life cycle (cloud profiling), 2) cloud processing of aerosol particles and trace gases (inflow and outflow), 3) satellite and radar validation (cloud products), 4) vertical transport and mixing (tracer experiment), and 5) cloud formation over forested/deforested areas. Data were collected in near-pristine atmospheric conditions and in environments polluted by biomass burning and urban emissions. The paper presents a general introduction of the ACRIDICON– CHUVA campaign (motivation and addressed research topics) and of HALO with its extensive instrument package, as well as a presentation of a few selected measurement results acquired during the flights for some selected scientific topics.

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