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  • Author or Editor: Maximilian Dollner x
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David A. Peterson
,
Laura H. Thapa
,
Pablo E. Saide
,
Amber J. Soja
,
Emily M. Gargulinski
,
Edward J. Hyer
,
Bernadett Weinzierl
,
Maximilian Dollner
,
Manuel Schöberl
,
Philippe P. Papin
,
Shobha Kondragunta
,
Christopher P. Camacho
,
Charles Ichoku
,
Richard H. Moore
,
Johnathan W. Hair
,
James H. Crawford
,
Philip E. Dennison
,
Olga V. Kalashnikova
,
Christel E. Bennese
,
Thaopaul P. Bui
,
Joshua P. DiGangi
,
Glenn S. Diskin
,
Marta A. Fenn
,
Hannah S. Halliday
,
Jose Jimenez
,
John B. Nowak
,
Claire Robinson
,
Kevin Sanchez
,
Taylor J. Shingler
,
Lee Thornhill
,
Elizabeth B. Wiggins
,
Edward Winstead
, and
Chuanyu Xu

Abstract

The 2019 Fire Influence on Regional to Global Environments and Air Quality (FIREX-AQ) field experiment obtained a diverse set of in situ and remotely sensed measurements before and during a pyrocumulonimbus (pyroCb) event over the Williams Flats fire in Washington State. This unique dataset confirms that pyroCb activity is an efficient vertical smoke transport pathway into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). The magnitude of smoke plumes observed in the UTLS has increased significantly in recent years, following unprecedented wildfire and pyroCb activity observed worldwide. The FIREX-AQ pyroCb dataset is therefore extremely relevant to a broad community, providing the first measurements of fresh smoke exhaust in the upper troposphere, including from within active pyroCb cloud tops. High-resolution remote sensing reveals that three plume cores linked to localized fire fronts, burning primarily in dense forest fuels, contributed to four total pyroCb “pulses.” Rapid changes in fire geometry and spatial extent dramatically influenced the magnitude, behavior, and duration of pyroCb activity. Cloud probe measurements and weather radar identify the presence of large ice particles within the pyroCb and hydrometers below cloud base, indicating precipitation development. The resulting feedbacks suggest that vertical smoke transport efficiency was reduced slightly when compared with intense pyroCb events reaching the lower stratosphere. Physical and optical aerosol property measurements in pyroCb exhaust are compared with previous assumptions. A large suite of aerosol and gas-phase chemistry measurements sets a foundation for future studies aimed at understanding the composition of smoke plumes lifted by pyroconvection into the UTLS and their role in the climate system.

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Christiane Voigt
,
Ulrich Schumann
,
Andreas Minikin
,
Ahmed Abdelmonem
,
Armin Afchine
,
Stephan Borrmann
,
Maxi Boettcher
,
Bernhard Buchholz
,
Luca Bugliaro
,
Anja Costa
,
Joachim Curtius
,
Maximilian Dollner
,
Andreas Dörnbrack
,
Volker Dreiling
,
Volker Ebert
,
Andre Ehrlich
,
Andreas Fix
,
Linda Forster
,
Fabian Frank
,
Daniel Fütterer
,
Andreas Giez
,
Kaspar Graf
,
Jens-Uwe Grooß
,
Silke Groß
,
Katharina Heimerl
,
Bernd Heinold
,
Tilman Hüneke
,
Emma Järvinen
,
Tina Jurkat
,
Stefan Kaufmann
,
Mareike Kenntner
,
Marcus Klingebiel
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Thomas Klimach
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Rebecca Kohl
,
Martina Krämer
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Trismono Candra Krisna
,
Anna Luebke
,
Bernhard Mayer
,
Stephan Mertes
,
Sergej Molleker
,
Andreas Petzold
,
Klaus Pfeilsticker
,
Max Port
,
Markus Rapp
,
Philipp Reutter
,
Christian Rolf
,
Diana Rose
,
Daniel Sauer
,
Andreas Schäfler
,
Romy Schlage
,
Martin Schnaiter
,
Johannes Schneider
,
Nicole Spelten
,
Peter Spichtinger
,
Paul Stock
,
Adrian Walser
,
Ralf Weigel
,
Bernadett Weinzierl
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Manfred Wendisch
,
Frank Werner
,
Heini Wernli
,
Martin Wirth
,
Andreas Zahn
,
Helmut Ziereis
, and
Martin Zöger

Abstract

The Midlatitude Cirrus experiment (ML-CIRRUS) deployed the High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO) to obtain new insights into nucleation, life cycle, and climate impact of natural cirrus and aircraft-induced contrail cirrus. Direct observations of cirrus properties and their variability are still incomplete, currently limiting our understanding of the clouds’ impact on climate. Also, dynamical effects on clouds and feedbacks are not adequately represented in today’s weather prediction models.

Here, we present the rationale, objectives, and selected scientific highlights of ML-CIRRUS using the G-550 aircraft of the German atmospheric science community. The first combined in situ–remote sensing cloud mission with HALO united state-of-the-art cloud probes, a lidar and novel ice residual, aerosol, trace gas, and radiation instrumentation. The aircraft observations were accompanied by remote sensing from satellite and ground and by numerical simulations.

In spring 2014, HALO performed 16 flights above Europe with a focus on anthropogenic contrail cirrus and midlatitude cirrus induced by frontal systems including warm conveyor belts and other dynamical regimes (jet streams, mountain waves, and convection). Highlights from ML-CIRRUS include 1) new observations of microphysical and radiative cirrus properties and their variability in meteorological regimes typical for midlatitudes, 2) insights into occurrence of in situ–formed and lifted liquid-origin cirrus, 3) validation of cloud forecasts and satellite products, 4) assessment of contrail predictability, and 5) direct observations of contrail cirrus and their distinction from natural cirrus. Hence, ML-CIRRUS provides a comprehensive dataset on cirrus in the densely populated European midlatitudes with the scope to enhance our understanding of cirrus clouds and their role for climate and weather.

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Manfred Wendisch
,
Ulrich Pöschl
,
Meinrat O. Andreae
,
Luiz A. T. Machado
,
Rachel Albrecht
,
Hans Schlager
,
Daniel Rosenfeld
,
Scot T. Martin
,
Ahmed Abdelmonem
,
Armin Afchine
,
Alessandro C. Araùjo
,
Paulo Artaxo
,
Heinfried Aufmhoff
,
Henrique M. J. Barbosa
,
Stephan Borrmann
,
Ramon Braga
,
Bernhard Buchholz
,
Micael Amore Cecchini
,
Anja Costa
,
Joachim Curtius
,
Maximilian Dollner
,
Marcel Dorf
,
Volker Dreiling
,
Volker Ebert
,
André Ehrlich
,
Florian Ewald
,
Gilberto Fisch
,
Andreas Fix
,
Fabian Frank
,
Daniel Fütterer
,
Christopher Heckl
,
Fabian Heidelberg
,
Tilman Hüneke
,
Evelyn Jäkel
,
Emma Järvinen
,
Tina Jurkat
,
Sandra Kanter
,
Udo Kästner
,
Mareike Kenntner
,
Jürgen Kesselmeier
,
Thomas Klimach
,
Matthias Knecht
,
Rebecca Kohl
,
Tobias Kölling
,
Martina Krämer
,
Mira Krüger
,
Trismono Candra Krisna
,
Jost V. Lavric
,
Karla Longo
,
Christoph Mahnke
,
Antonio O. Manzi
,
Bernhard Mayer
,
Stephan Mertes
,
Andreas Minikin
,
Sergej Molleker
,
Steffen Münch
,
Björn Nillius
,
Klaus Pfeilsticker
,
Christopher Pöhlker
,
Anke Roiger
,
Diana Rose
,
Dagmar Rosenow
,
Daniel Sauer
,
Martin Schnaiter
,
Johannes Schneider
,
Christiane Schulz
,
Rodrigo A. F. de Souza
,
Antonio Spanu
,
Paul Stock
,
Daniel Vila
,
Christiane Voigt
,
Adrian Walser
,
David Walter
,
Ralf Weigel
,
Bernadett Weinzierl
,
Frank Werner
,
Marcia A. Yamasoe
,
Helmut Ziereis
,
Tobias Zinner
, and
Martin Zöger

Abstract

Between 1 September and 4 October 2014, a combined airborne and ground-based measurement campaign was conducted to study tropical deep convective clouds over the Brazilian Amazon rain forest. The new German research aircraft, High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO), a modified Gulfstream G550, and extensive ground-based instrumentation were deployed in and near Manaus (State of Amazonas). The campaign was part of the German–Brazilian Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Convective Cloud Systems–Cloud Processes of the Main Precipitation Systems in Brazil: A Contribution to Cloud Resolving Modeling and to the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement) (ACRIDICON– CHUVA) venture to quantify aerosol–cloud–precipitation interactions and their thermodynamic, dynamic, and radiative effects by in situ and remote sensing measurements over Amazonia. The ACRIDICON–CHUVA field observations were carried out in cooperation with the second intensive operating period of Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 (GoAmazon2014/5). In this paper we focus on the airborne data measured on HALO, which was equipped with about 30 in situ and remote sensing instruments for meteorological, trace gas, aerosol, cloud, precipitation, and spectral solar radiation measurements. Fourteen research flights with a total duration of 96 flight hours were performed. Five scientific topics were pursued: 1) cloud vertical evolution and life cycle (cloud profiling), 2) cloud processing of aerosol particles and trace gases (inflow and outflow), 3) satellite and radar validation (cloud products), 4) vertical transport and mixing (tracer experiment), and 5) cloud formation over forested/deforested areas. Data were collected in near-pristine atmospheric conditions and in environments polluted by biomass burning and urban emissions. The paper presents a general introduction of the ACRIDICON– CHUVA campaign (motivation and addressed research topics) and of HALO with its extensive instrument package, as well as a presentation of a few selected measurement results acquired during the flights for some selected scientific topics.

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Chelsea R. Thompson
,
Steven C. Wofsy
,
Michael J. Prather
,
Paul A. Newman
,
Thomas F. Hanisco
,
Thomas B. Ryerson
,
David W. Fahey
,
Eric C. Apel
,
Charles A. Brock
,
William H. Brune
,
Karl Froyd
,
Joseph M. Katich
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Julie M. Nicely
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Jeff Peischl
,
Eric Ray
,
Patrick R. Veres
,
Siyuan Wang
,
Hannah M. Allen
,
Elizabeth Asher
,
Huisheng Bian
,
Donald Blake
,
Ilann Bourgeois
,
John Budney
,
T. Paul Bui
,
Amy Butler
,
Pedro Campuzano-Jost
,
Cecilia Chang
,
Mian Chin
,
Róisín Commane
,
Gus Correa
,
John D. Crounse
,
Bruce Daube
,
Jack E. Dibb
,
Joshua P. DiGangi
,
Glenn S. Diskin
,
Maximilian Dollner
,
James W. Elkins
,
Arlene M. Fiore
,
Clare M. Flynn
,
Hao Guo
,
Samuel R. Hall
,
Reem A. Hannun
,
Alan Hills
,
Eric J. Hintsa
,
Alma Hodzic
,
Rebecca S. Hornbrook
,
L. Greg Huey
,
Jose L. Jimenez
,
Ralph F. Keeling
,
Michelle J. Kim
,
Agnieszka Kupc
,
Forrest Lacey
,
Leslie R. Lait
,
Jean-Francois Lamarque
,
Junhua Liu
,
Kathryn McKain
,
Simone Meinardi
,
David O. Miller
,
Stephen A. Montzka
,
Fred L. Moore
,
Eric J. Morgan
,
Daniel M. Murphy
,
Lee T. Murray
,
Benjamin A. Nault
,
J. Andrew Neuman
,
Louis Nguyen
,
Yenny Gonzalez
,
Andrew Rollins
,
Karen Rosenlof
,
Maryann Sargent
,
Gregory Schill
,
Joshua P. Schwarz
,
Jason M. St. Clair
,
Stephen D. Steenrod
,
Britton B. Stephens
,
Susan E. Strahan
,
Sarah A. Strode
,
Colm Sweeney
,
Alexander B. Thames
,
Kirk Ullmann
,
Nicholas Wagner
,
Rodney Weber
,
Bernadett Weinzierl
,
Paul O. Wennberg
,
Christina J. Williamson
,
Glenn M. Wolfe
, and
Linghan Zeng

Abstract

This article provides an overview of the NASA Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) mission and a summary of selected scientific findings to date. ATom was an airborne measurements and modeling campaign aimed at characterizing the composition and chemistry of the troposphere over the most remote regions of the Pacific, Southern, Atlantic, and Arctic Oceans, and examining the impact of anthropogenic and natural emissions on a global scale. These remote regions dominate global chemical reactivity and are exceptionally important for global air quality and climate. ATom data provide the in situ measurements needed to understand the range of chemical species and their reactions, and to test satellite remote sensing observations and global models over large regions of the remote atmosphere. Lack of data in these regions, particularly over the oceans, has limited our understanding of how atmospheric composition is changing in response to shifting anthropogenic emissions and physical climate change. ATom was designed as a global-scale tomographic sampling mission with extensive geographic and seasonal coverage, tropospheric vertical profiling, and detailed speciation of reactive compounds and pollution tracers. ATom flew the NASA DC-8 research aircraft over four seasons to collect a comprehensive suite of measurements of gases, aerosols, and radical species from the remote troposphere and lower stratosphere on four global circuits from 2016 to 2018. Flights maintained near-continuous vertical profiling of 0.15–13-km altitudes on long meridional transects of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins. Analysis and modeling of ATom data have led to the significant early findings highlighted here.

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