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Xubin Zeng
,
Michael Barlage
,
Robert E. Dickinson
,
Yongjiu Dai
,
Guiling Wang
, and
Keith Oleson

Abstract

In arid and semiarid regions most of the solar radiation penetrates through the canopy and reaches the ground, and hence the turbulent exchange coefficient under canopy Cs becomes important. The use of a constant Cs that is only appropriate for thick canopies is found to be primarily responsible for the excessive warm bias of around 10 K in monthly mean ground temperature over these regions in version 2 of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM2). New Cs formulations are developed for the consistent treatment of undercanopy turbulence for both thick and thin canopies in land models, and provide a preliminary solution of this problem.

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Keith M. Hines
,
David H. Bromwich
,
Le-Sheng Bai
,
Michael Barlage
, and
Andrew G. Slater

Abstract

A version of the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) has been developed for use in polar climates. The model known as “Polar WRF” is tested for land areas with a western Arctic grid that has 25-km resolution. This work serves as preparation for the high-resolution Arctic System Reanalysis of the years 2000–10. The model is based upon WRF version 3.0.1.1, with improvements to the Noah land surface model and snow/ice treatment. Simulations consist of a series of 48-h integrations initialized daily at 0000 UTC, with the initial 24 h taken as spinup for atmospheric hydrology and boundary layer processes. Soil temperature and moisture that have a much slower spinup than the atmosphere are cycled from 48-h output of earlier runs. Arctic conditions are simulated for a winter-to-summer seasonal cycle from 15 November 2006 to 1 August 2007. Simulation results are compared with a variety of observations from several Alaskan sites, with emphasis on the North Slope. Polar WRF simulation results show good agreement with most near-surface observations. Warm temperature biases are found for winter and summer. A sensitivity experiment with reduced soil heat conductivity, however, improves simulation of near-surface temperature, ground heat flux, and soil temperature during winter. There is a marked deficit in summer cloud cover over land with excessive incident shortwave radiation. The cloud deficit may result from anomalous vertical mixing of moisture by the turbulence parameterization. The new snow albedo parameterization for WRF 3.1.1 is successfully tested for snowmelt over the North Slope of Alaska.

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Roy Rasmussen
,
Changhai Liu
,
Kyoko Ikeda
,
David Gochis
,
David Yates
,
Fei Chen
,
Mukul Tewari
,
Michael Barlage
,
Jimy Dudhia
,
Wei Yu
,
Kathleen Miller
,
Kristi Arsenault
,
Vanda Grubišić
,
Greg Thompson
, and
Ethan Gutmann

Abstract

Climate change is expected to accelerate the hydrologic cycle, increase the fraction of precipitation that is rain, and enhance snowpack melting. The enhanced hydrological cycle is also expected to increase snowfall amounts due to increased moisture availability. These processes are examined in this paper in the Colorado Headwaters region through the use of a coupled high-resolution climate–runoff model. Four high-resolution simulations of annual snowfall over Colorado are conducted. The simulations are verified using Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) data. Results are then presented regarding the grid spacing needed for appropriate simulation of snowfall. Finally, climate sensitivity is explored using a pseudo–global warming approach. The results show that the proper spatial and temporal depiction of snowfall adequate for water resource and climate change purposes can be achieved with the appropriate choice of model grid spacing and parameterizations. The pseudo–global warming simulations indicate enhanced snowfall on the order of 10%–25% over the Colorado Headwaters region, with the enhancement being less in the core headwaters region due to the topographic reduction of precipitation upstream of the region (rain-shadow effect). The main climate change impacts are in the enhanced melting at the lower-elevation bound of the snowpack and the increased snowfall at higher elevations. The changes in peak snow mass are generally near zero due to these two compensating effects, and simulated wintertime total runoff is above current levels. The 1 April snow water equivalent (SWE) is reduced by 25% in the warmer climate, and the date of maximum SWE occurs 2–17 days prior to current climate results, consistent with previous studies.

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