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Donald R. Wiesnet and Michael Matson

Abstract

Winter season snow and ice charts of the Northern Hemisphere based on satellite data from 1966 through 1975 were examined to determine the extent and area of snow cover in Eurasia and North America Graphical analysis indicates no significant overall increase in North American winter snow cover for the 9-year period of data, whereas over the same period a large fluctuation occurred in Eurasia. Regression analysis yielded several equations with correlation coefficients significant enough to have possible applications for 30-, 60-, and 90-day forecasting of seasonal, hemispheric, and continental snow cover.

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Donald R. Wiesnet and Michael Matson

Abstract

NOAA satellite-derived snowcover data for the winter of 1977–78 are presented. Comparison with the 12-year satellite snowcover record shows 1) a record-high North American winter snowcover, exceeding the expected variability. 2) a record-high Eurasian winter snowcover, within the expected variability; and 3) a record-high Northern Hemisphere winter snowcover, exceeding the expected variability. The satellite data provides timely monitoring of continental snowcover, which may in turn serve as an index of winter severity and climatic fluctuation.

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Chester F. Ropelewski, Alan Robock, and Michael Matson

Abstract

No abstract available.

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Michael Matson, E. Paul Mcclain, David F. McGinnis Jr., and John A. Pritchard

Abstract

On 28 July 1977 an unusually cloud-ftee nighttime thermal infrared image of the midwestern and northeastern United States from the NOAA 5 satellite enabled detection of more than 50 urban beat islands. Analysis of digital data from the satellite for selected cities yielded maximum urban-rural temperature differences ranging from 2.6 to 6.5°C. Through computer enhancement and enlargement of the satellite imagery, the urban beat islands of St. Louis, Washington, DC and Baltimore can be depicted at a usable scale as large as 1:500 000. A comparison of the enhanced thermal infrared imagery with the 1970 U.S. Census maps of urbanized areas for the three cities indicates the extent of possible urbanization changes in the last seven years.

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