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K. G. Vohra and P. V. N. Nair

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P. V. N. Nair, P. V. Joshi, U. C. Mishra, and K. G. Vohra

Abstract

Computed values of equilibrium sizes and composition of uncharged and charged aqueous solution droplets of HNO3 and HCl at 25°C, relative humidifies from 5 to 101%, and solute vapor activities from 10 to 107 are presented. Threshold concentrations for heteromolecular nucleation of HNO3 and HCl at 40, 30, 20, 10, 0, and −10°C are also given as a function of the relative humidity. It is shown that atmospheric concentrations of HNO3 and HCl can participate in nucleation at temperatures below 20°C and relative humidifies above 98%. The nature of the nucleation of HNO3 and HCl in the atmosphere including ion-induced nucleation for which there is no threshold and some of the available experimental results are discussed.

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P. A. Francis, A. K. Jithin, J. B. Effy, A. Chatterjee, K. Chakraborty, A. Paul, B. Balaji, S. S. C. Shenoi, P. Biswamoy, A. Mukherjee, P. Singh, B. Deepsankar, S. Siva Reddy, P. N. Vinayachandran, M. S. Girish Kumar, T. V. S. Udaya Bhaskar, M. Ravichandran, A. S. Unnikrishnan, D. Shankar, A. Prakash, S. G. Aparna, R. Harikumar, K. Kaviyazhahu, K. Suprit, R. V. Shesu, N. Kiran Kumar, N. Srinivasa Rao, K. Annapurnaiah, R. Venkatesan, A. S. Rao, E. N. Rajagopal, V. S. Prasad, M. D. Gupta, T. M. Balakrishnan Nair, E. P. R. Rao, and B. V. Satyanarayana

Abstract

A good understanding of the general circulation features of the oceans, particularly of the coastal waters, and ability to predict the key oceanographic parameters with good accuracy and sufficient lead time are necessary for the safe conduct of maritime activities such as fishing, shipping, and offshore industries. Considering these requirements and buoyed by the advancements in the field of ocean modeling, data assimilation, and ocean observation networks along with the availability of the high-performance computational facility in India, Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services has set up a “High-Resolution Operational Ocean Forecast and Reanalysis System” (HOOFS) with an aim to provide accurate ocean analysis and forecasts for the public, researchers, and other types of users like navigators and the Indian Coast Guard. Major components of HOOFS are (i) a suite of numerical ocean models configured for the Indian Ocean and the coastal waters using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) for forecasting physical and biogeochemical state of the ocean and (ii) the data assimilation based on local ensemble transform Kalman filter that assimilates in situ and satellite observations in ROMS. Apart from the routine forecasts of key oceanographic parameters, a few important applications such as (i) Potential Fishing Zone forecasting system and (ii) Search and Rescue Aid Tool are also developed as part of the HOOFS project. The architecture of HOOFS, an account of the quality of ocean analysis and forecasts produced by it and important applications developed based on HOOFS are briefly discussed in this article.

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