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Alexander Myagkov
,
Patric Seifert
,
Ulla Wandinger
,
Matthias Bauer-Pfundstein
, and
Sergey Y. Matrosov

Abstract

This paper presents an experimental analysis of the antenna system effects on polarimetric measurements conducted with cloud radars operating in the linear depolarization ratio (LDR) mode. Amplitude and phase of the copolar and cross-polar antenna patterns are presented and utilized. The patterns of two antennas of different quality were measured at the Hungriger Wolf airport near Hohenlockstedt, Germany, during the period from 28 January to 1 February 2014. For the measurements a test transmitter mounted on a tower and the scanning 35-GHz (Ka band) cloud radar MIRA-35, manufactured by METEK GmbH and operated in the receiving mode, were used. The integrated cross-polarization ratios (ICPR) are calculated for both antennas and compared with those measured in light rain. Correction algorithms for observed LDR and the co-cross-channel correlation coefficient ρ are presented. These algorithms are aimed at removing/mitigating polarization cross-coupling effects that depend on the quality of radar hardware. Thus, corrected LDR and ρ are primarily influenced by scatterer properties. The corrections are based on the decomposition of the coherency matrix of the received signals into fully polarized and nonpolarized components. The correction brings LDR values and the co-cross-channel correlation coefficients from two radars with different antenna systems to a close agreement, thus effectively removing hardware-dependent biases. Uncertainties of the correction are estimated as 3 dB for LDR in the range from −30 to −10 dB. In clouds, the correction of the co-cross-channel correlation coefficient ρ results in near-zero values for both vertically pointed radars.

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Christian Herold
,
Dietrich Althausen
,
Detlef Müller
,
Matthias Tesche
,
Patric Seifert
,
Ronny Engelmann
,
Cyrille Flamant
,
Rohini Bhawar
, and
Paolo Di Girolamo

Abstract

Water vapor measurements with the multiwavelength Raman lidar Backscatter Extinction Lidar-Ratio Temperature Humidity Profiling Apparatus (BERTHA) were performed during the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS) in the Black Forest, Germany, from June to August 2007. For quality assurance, profiles of the water vapor mixing ratio measured with BERTHA are compared to simultaneous measurements of a radiosonde and an airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) on 31 July 2007. The differences from the radiosonde observations are found to be on average 1.5% and 2.5% in the residual layer and in the free troposphere, respectively. During the two overflights at 1937 and 2018 UTC, the differences from the DIAL results are −2.2% and −3.7% in the residual layer and 2.1% and −2.6% in the free troposphere. After this performance check, short-range forecasts from the German Meteorological Service’s (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) version of the Consortium for Small-Scale Modeling (COSMO-DE) model are compared to the BERTHA measurements for two case studies. Generally, it is found that water vapor mixing ratios from short-range forecasts are on average 7.9% drier than the values measured in the residual layer. In the free troposphere, modeled values are 9.7% drier than the measurements.

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Andrea Lammert
,
Akio Hansen
,
Felix Ament
,
Susanne Crewell
,
Galina Dick
,
Verena Grützun
,
Henk Klein-Baltink
,
Volker Lehmann
,
Andreas Macke
,
Bernhard Pospichal
,
Wiebke Schubotz
,
Patric Seifert
,
Erasmia Stamnas
, and
Bjorn Stevens

Abstract

Central Europe has a vital and extensive meteorological research community comprising national weather services, universities, and research organizations and institutes. Nearly all of them are involved in the open scientific questions regarding clouds and precipitation processes. The research activities include observations (from in situ ground-based remote sensing radio soundings to satellite-based observations), model development on all scales (from direct numerical simulations to global climate models), and other activities. With Germany as an example our first objective is to show the large amount and the diversity of observations regarding clouds and precipitation. The goal is to give an overview of existing measurements and datasets to show the benefit of combining the different information from a variety of observations. Up to now the access to and the usage of these datasets from different sources was not straightforward, due to the issue of missing data and archiving standards for observational data. This then motivates our second objective, which is to introduce our solution for this issue—the novel Standardized Atmospheric Measurement Data archive (SAMD). SAMD is one of the outcomes of the German research initiative High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for Advancing Climate Prediction [HD(CP)2]. The goal of SAMD is an easy-to-use approach for both data producers and archive users. Therefore the archive provides observational data in the common Climate Forecast (CF) Conventions format and makes it available to the broader public. SAMD offers highly standardized quality-controlled data and metadata for a wide range of instruments, with open access, which makes this novel archive important for the research community.

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