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R. J. Fleming
,
T. M. Kaneshige
, and
W. E. McGovern

An unprecedented analysis of the atmosphere of planet Earth is currently underway with the involvement of over 140 countries in the Global Weather Experiment—the largest international scientific experiment yet attempted. After many years of planning, the Operational Year began in December of 1978. Following the field phase and data management phase, a multi-year evaluation and research program will commence and continue until the late 1980s. During this period, scientists and technicians will examine the atmosphere, the sea surface, and the upper layer of the world's oceans in the most intense survey and study ever made. A number of successes and failures occurred in preparing for the observing phase and these are mentioned as each observing system actually deployed in the field is reviewed. The focus of the paper is on the quantity of data gathered and how it was obtained. The article concludes with some suggestions for assurances of final success of the Experiment.

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R. J. Fleming
,
T. M. Kaneshige
,
W. E. McGovern
, and
T. E. Bryan

During the Second Special Observing Period of May and June 1979, the Global Weather Experiment reached a peak. At this time the largest concentration of resources ever assembled was deployed to meet the challenge of observing the atmosphere and oceans to an unprecedented degree. This article outlines this effort and highlights the various observing systems involved in this effort—in particular the quantity of observations gathered from each major system.

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M. V. Bilskie
,
T. G. Asher
,
P. W. Miller
,
J. G. Fleming
,
S. C. Hagen
, and
R. A. Luettich Jr.

Abstract

Storm surge caused by tropical cyclones can cause overland flooding and lead to loss of life while damaging homes, businesses, and critical infrastructure. In 2018, Hurricane Michael made landfall near Mexico Beach, Florida, on 10 October with peak wind speeds near 71.9 m s−1 (161 mph) and storm surge over 4.5 m NAVD88. During Hurricane Michael, water levels and waves were predicted near–real time using a deterministic, depth-averaged, high-resolution ADCIRC+SWAN model of the northern Gulf of Mexico. The model was forced with an asymmetrical parametric vortex model [generalized asymmetric Holland model (GAHM)] based on Michael’s National Hurricane Center (NHC) forecast track and strength. The authors report errors between simulated and observed water level time series, peak water level, and timing of peak for NHC advisories. Forecasts of water levels were within 0.5 m of observations, and the timing of peak water levels was within 1 h as early as 48 h before Michael’s eventual landfall. We also examined the effect of adding far-field meteorology in our TC vortex model for use in real-time forecasts. In general, we found that including far-field meteorology by blending the TC vortex with a basin-scale NWP product improved water level forecasts. However, we note that divergence between the NHC forecast track and the forecast track of the meteorological model supplying the far-field winds represents a potential limitation to operationalizing a blended wind field surge product. The approaches and data reported herein provide a transparent assessment of water level forecasts during Hurricane Michael and highlight potential future improvements for more accurate predictions.

Open access
A. H. Manson
,
C. E. Meek
,
E. Fleming
,
S. Chandra
,
R. A. Vincent
,
A. Phillips
,
S. K. Avery
,
G. J. Fraser
,
M. J. Smith
,
J. L. Fellous
, and
M. Massebeuf

Abstract

Satellite-radiance data (Nimbus 5, 6; ≤80 km) and the MSIS-83 model have been used to prepare global zonal-mean gradient winds (30–120 km) for the new CIRA-1986. Here these are supplemented by planetary-wave morphology from the same Nimbus data to provide local gradient winds—the zonal wind and the eddy portion of the meridional wind are calculated by this method. These data are then compared with radar-derived wind contours (∼60–110 km), extending the comparisons done earlier (Manson et al.) for heights below 80 km. Overall the agreement for the zonal winds is good, especially below 80 km; differences are shown so the user can evaluate each product. The comparison of meridional winds is particularly valuable and unique as it reveals considerable ageostrophy, particularly in summer months near the height of the zonal wind's reversal from west- to eastward flow. Coriolis torques due to this meridional flow are available from Saskatoon (52°), Poker Flat (65°), and Tromsö (70°) in the Northern Hemisphere, and Adelaide (35°), Christchurch (44°), and Mawson (68°) in the Southern Hemisphere. Values of 60–100 m s−1 day−1 are generally consistent with estimates of the balancing gravity wave momentum deposition made by direct methods at the same locations.

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Elmar R. Reiter
,
John D. Sheaffer
,
James E. Bossert
,
Richard C. Fleming
,
William E. Clements
,
J. T. Lee
,
Sumner Barr
,
John A. Archuleta
, and
Donald E. Hoard

During the late summer of 1985 a field experiment was conducted to investigate mountaintop winds over a broad area of the Rocky Mountains extending from south central Wyoming through northern New Mexico. The principal motivation for this experiment was to further investigate an unexpectedly strong and potentially important wind cycle observed at mountaintop in north central Colorado during August 1984. These winds frequently exhibited nocturnal maxima of 20 to 30 m · s−1 from southeasterly directions and often persisted for eight to ten hours. It appears that these winds originate as outflow from intense mesoscale convective systems that form daily over highland areas along the Continental Divide. However, details of the spatial extent and variability of these winds could not be determined from “routine” regional weather data that are mostly collected in valleys. Although synoptic conditions during much of the 1985 experiment period did not favor diurnally recurring convection over the study area, sufficient data were obtained to verify the regional-scale organization of strong convective outflow at mountaintop elevations. In addition, the usefulness and feasibility of a mountain-peak weather-data network for routine synoptic analysis is demonstrated.

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R. H. Moss
,
S. Avery
,
K. Baja
,
M. Burkett
,
A. M. Chischilly
,
J. Dell
,
P. A. Fleming
,
K. Geil
,
K. Jacobs
,
A. Jones
,
K. Knowlton
,
J. Koh
,
M. C. Lemos
,
J. Melillo
,
R. Pandya
,
T. C. Richmond
,
L. Scarlett
,
J. Snyder
,
M. Stults
,
A. Waple
,
J. Whitehead
,
D. Zarrilli
,
J. Fox
,
A. Ganguly
,
L. Joppa
,
S. Julius
,
P. Kirshen
,
R. Kreutter
,
A. McGovern
,
R. Meyer
,
J. Neumann
,
W. Solecki
,
J. Smith
,
P. Tissot
,
G. Yohe
, and
R. Zimmerman
Full access
R. H. Moss
,
S. Avery
,
K. Baja
,
M. Burkett
,
A. M. Chischilly
,
J. Dell
,
P. A. Fleming
,
K. Geil
,
K. Jacobs
,
A. Jones
,
K. Knowlton
,
J. Koh
,
M. C. Lemos
,
J. Melillo
,
R. Pandya
,
T. C. Richmond
,
L. Scarlett
,
J. Snyder
,
M. Stults
,
A. M. Waple
,
J. Whitehead
,
D. Zarrilli
,
B. M. Ayyub
,
J. Fox
,
A. Ganguly
,
L. Joppa
,
S. Julius
,
P. Kirshen
,
R. Kreutter
,
A. McGovern
,
R. Meyer
,
J. Neumann
,
W. Solecki
,
J. Smith
,
P. Tissot
,
G. Yohe
, and
R. Zimmerman

Abstract

As states, cities, tribes, and private interests cope with climate damages and seek to increase preparedness and resilience, they will need to navigate myriad choices and options available to them. Making these choices in ways that identify pathways for climate action that support their development objectives will require constructive public dialogue, community participation, and flexible and ongoing access to science- and experience-based knowledge. In 2016, a Federal Advisory Committee (FAC) was convened to recommend how to conduct a sustained National Climate Assessment (NCA) to increase the relevance and usability of assessments for informing action. The FAC was disbanded in 2017, but members and additional experts reconvened to complete the report that is presented here. A key recommendation is establishing a new nonfederal “climate assessment consortium” to increase the role of state/local/tribal government and civil society in assessments. The expanded process would 1) focus on applied problems faced by practitioners, 2) organize sustained partnerships for collaborative learning across similar projects and case studies to identify effective tested practices, and 3) assess and improve knowledge-based methods for project implementation. Specific recommendations include evaluating climate models and data using user-defined metrics; improving benefit–cost assessment and supporting decision-making under uncertainty; and accelerating application of tools and methods such as citizen science, artificial intelligence, indicators, and geospatial analysis. The recommendations are the result of broad consultation and present an ambitious agenda for federal agencies, state/local/tribal jurisdictions, universities and the research sector, professional associations, nongovernmental and community-based organizations, and private-sector firms.

Open access
S. I. Bohnenstengel
,
S. E. Belcher
,
A. Aiken
,
J. D. Allan
,
G. Allen
,
A. Bacak
,
T. J. Bannan
,
J. F. Barlow
,
D. C. S. Beddows
,
W. J. Bloss
,
A. M. Booth
,
C. Chemel
,
O. Coceal
,
C. F. Di Marco
,
M. K. Dubey
,
K. H. Faloon
,
Z. L. Fleming
,
M. Furger
,
J. K. Gietl
,
R. R. Graves
,
D. C. Green
,
C. S. B. Grimmond
,
C. H. Halios
,
J. F. Hamilton
,
R. M. Harrison
,
M. R. Heal
,
D. E. Heard
,
C. Helfter
,
S. C. Herndon
,
R. E. Holmes
,
J. R. Hopkins
,
A. M. Jones
,
F. J. Kelly
,
S. Kotthaus
,
B. Langford
,
J. D. Lee
,
R. J. Leigh
,
A. C. Lewis
,
R. T. Lidster
,
F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker
,
J. B. McQuaid
,
C. Mohr
,
P. S. Monks
,
E. Nemitz
,
N. L. Ng
,
C. J. Percival
,
A. S. H. Prévôt
,
H. M. A. Ricketts
,
R. Sokhi
,
D. Stone
,
J. A. Thornton
,
A. H. Tremper
,
A. C. Valach
,
S. Visser
,
L. K. Whalley
,
L. R. Williams
,
L. Xu
,
D. E. Young
, and
P. Zotter

Abstract

Air quality and heat are strong health drivers, and their accurate assessment and forecast are important in densely populated urban areas. However, the sources and processes leading to high concentrations of main pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and fine and coarse particulate matter, in complex urban areas are not fully understood, limiting our ability to forecast air quality accurately. This paper introduces the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo; www.clearflo.ac.uk) project’s interdisciplinary approach to investigate the processes leading to poor air quality and elevated temperatures.

Within ClearfLo, a large multi-institutional project funded by the U.K. Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), integrated measurements of meteorology and gaseous, and particulate composition/loading within the atmosphere of London, United Kingdom, were undertaken to understand the processes underlying poor air quality. Long-term measurement infrastructure installed at multiple levels (street and elevated), and at urban background, curbside, and rural locations were complemented with high-resolution numerical atmospheric simulations. Combining these (measurement–modeling) enhances understanding of seasonal variations in meteorology and composition together with the controlling processes. Two intensive observation periods (winter 2012 and the Summer Olympics of 2012) focus upon the vertical structure and evolution of the urban boundary layer; chemical controls on nitrogen dioxide and ozone production—in particular, the role of volatile organic compounds; and processes controlling the evolution, size, distribution, and composition of particulate matter. The paper shows that mixing heights are deeper over London than in the rural surroundings and that the seasonality of the urban boundary layer evolution controls when concentrations peak. The composition also reflects the seasonality of sources such as domestic burning and biogenic emissions.

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