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R. W. Wilcox
,
G. D. Nastrom
, and
A. D. Belmont

Abstract

Amplitudes and phases of the annual, quasi-biennial (QBO) and semiannual oscillations of Northern Hemisphere total ozone (1957–72) and North American ozonesonde (1962–74) data are presented. For total ozone, the annual wave has a maximum amplitude (120 m atm cm) along the east coast of Asia, where it occurs in February. The QBO has its largest amplitude (20 m atm cm) also over extreme eastern Siberia. The maximum amplitude (25 m atm cm) of the semiannual wave occurs at high latitudes and its first maximum tends to occur in late winter over most of the hemisphere. In general, these periodic variations have their maxima where standing waves indicate maxima in northward transport. It appears that these results are not greatly affected by differences in Dobson and M-83 instruments.

Eight years of new ozonesonde data at Resolute improve the estimates of monthly vertical distribution and periodic variability at high latitudes. The vertical distribution of ozone shows a maximum concentration about 10 km above the tropopause, and the largest amplitude of the periodic variations also parallels the tropopause. The amplitude of the annual wave (18 × 1011 cm−3) is near 16 km in the arctic and decreases to 4×1011 cm−3 at 30°N. The annual maximum occurs in February-March throughout the stratosphere north of 40°N. The maximum amplitude of the QBO (5 × 1011 cm−3) is centered in the arctic near 13 km and the level of the maximum rises to 24 km in the tropics, where the amplitude is smaller. The QBO appears to progress both upward and downward from near 20 km at all latitudes, taking 8 months to reach 13 km in the arctic. The semiannual wave's maximum amplitude (4 × 1011 cm−3) occurs in the arctic near 18 km where the first maximum occurs in February-March.

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D. H. Staelin
,
K. F. Kunzi
,
R. L. Pettyjohn
,
R. K. L. Poon
,
R. W. Wilcox
, and
J. W. Waters

Abstract

The passive microwave spectrometer on the Nimbus 5 satellite has two channels that measure atmospheric water vapor and liquid water abundances over ocean. Observed water vapor abundances range up to 6 g cm−2 and differ from nearby radiosondes by ∼0.4 g cm−2. Average liquid water abundances over a 300 km observation zone range from −0.01 to 0.2 g cm−2, and have an rms error estimated to be ∼0.01 g cm−2 for most circumstances. These quantitative measurements can be used to construct global maps or to accumulate global statistics.

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