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Peter S. Ray
,
David P. Jorgensen
, and
Sue-Lee Wang

Abstract

Airborne Doppler radar can collect data on target storms that are quite widely dispersed. However, the relatively long time required to sample an individual storm in detail, particularly with a single aircraft, and the amplification of the statistical uncertainty in the radial velocity estimates when Cartesian wind components are derived, suggests that errors in wind fields derived from airborne Doppler radar measurements would exceed those from a ground based radar network which was better located to observe the same storm. Error distributions for two analysis methods (termed Overdetermined and Direct methods) are given and discussed for various flight configurations. Both methods are applied to data collected on a sea breeze induced storm that occurred in western Florida on 28 July 1982. Application of the direct solution, which does not use the continuity equation, and the overdetermined dual-Doppler method, which requires the use of the continuity equation, resulted in similar fields. Since the magnitude of all errors are unknown and the response of each method to errors is different, it is difficult to assess overall which analysis performs better; indeed each might be expected to perform best in different parts of the analysis domain. A flexible collection strategy can be followed with different analysis methods to optimize the quality of resulting synthesized wind fields.

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Gab Abramowitz
,
Hoshin Gupta
,
Andy Pitman
,
Yingping Wang
,
Ray Leuning
,
Helen Cleugh
, and
Kuo-lin Hsu

Abstract

Data assimilation in the field of predictive land surface modeling is generally limited to using observational data to estimate optimal model states or restrict model parameter ranges. To date, very little work has attempted to systematically define and quantify error resulting from a model's inherent inability to simulate the natural system. This paper introduces a data assimilation technique that moves toward this goal by accounting for those deficiencies in the model itself that lead to systematic errors in model output. This is done using a supervised artificial neural network to “learn” and simulate systematic trends in the model output error. These simulations in turn are used to correct the model's output each time step. The technique is applied in two case studies, using fluxes of latent heat flux at one site and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide at another. Root-mean-square error (rmse) in latent heat flux per time step was reduced from 27.5 to 18.6 W m−2 (32%) and monthly from 9.91 to 3.08 W m−2 (68%). For NEE, rmse per time step was reduced from 3.71 to 2.70 μmol m−2 s−1 (27%) and annually from 2.24 to 0.11 μmol m−2 s−1 (95%). In both cases the correction provided significantly greater gains than single criteria parameter estimation on the same flux.

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Yongqiang Zhang
,
Ray Leuning
,
Francis H. S. Chiew
,
Enli Wang
,
Lu Zhang
,
Changming Liu
,
Fubao Sun
,
Murray C. Peel
,
Yanjun Shen
, and
Martin Jung

Abstract

Satellite and gridded meteorological data can be used to estimate evaporation (E) from land surfaces using simple diagnostic models. Two satellite datasets indicate a positive trend (first time derivative) in global available energy from 1983 to 2006, suggesting that positive trends in evaporation may occur in “wet” regions where energy supply limits evaporation. However, decadal trends in evaporation estimated from water balances of 110 wet catchments do not match trends in evaporation estimated using three alternative methods: 1) , a model-tree ensemble approach that uses statistical relationships between E measured across the global network of flux stations, meteorological drivers, and remotely sensed fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation; 2) , a Budyko-style hydrometeorological model; and 3) , the Penman–Monteith energy-balance equation coupled with a simple biophysical model for surface conductance. Key model inputs for the estimation of and are remotely sensed radiation and gridded meteorological fields and it is concluded that these data are, as yet, not sufficiently accurate to explain trends in E for wet regions. This provides a significant challenge for satellite-based energy-balance methods. Trends in for 87 “dry” catchments are strongly correlated to trends in precipitation (R 2 = 0.85). These trends were best captured by , which explicitly includes precipitation and available energy as model inputs.

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Jinbo Wang
,
Lee-Lueng Fu
,
Bruce Haines
,
Matthias Lankhorst
,
Andrew J. Lucas
,
J. Thomas Farrar
,
Uwe Send
,
Christian Meinig
,
Oscar Schofield
,
Richard Ray
,
Matthew Archer
,
David Aragon
,
Sebastien Bigorre
,
Yi Chao
,
John Kerfoot
,
Robert Pinkel
,
David Sandwell
, and
Scott Stalin

Abstract

The future Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission aims to map sea surface height (SSH) in wide swaths with an unprecedented spatial resolution and subcentimeter accuracy. The instrument performance needs to be verified using independent measurements in a process known as calibration and validation (Cal/Val). The SWOT Cal/Val needs in situ measurements that can make synoptic observations of SSH field over an O(100) km distance with an accuracy matching the SWOT requirements specified in terms of the along-track wavenumber spectrum of SSH error. No existing in situ observing system has been demonstrated to meet this challenge. A field campaign was conducted during September 2019–January 2020 to assess the potential of various instruments and platforms to meet the SWOT Cal/Val requirement. These instruments include two GPS buoys, two bottom pressure recorders (BPR), three moorings with fixed conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) and CTD profilers, and a glider. The observations demonstrated that 1) the SSH (hydrostatic) equation can be closed with 1–3 cm RMS residual using BPR, CTD mooring and GPS SSH, and 2) using the upper-ocean steric height derived from CTD moorings enable subcentimeter accuracy in the California Current region during the 2019/20 winter. Given that the three moorings are separated at 10–20–30 km distance, the observations provide valuable information about the small-scale SSH variability associated with the ocean circulation at frequencies ranging from hourly to monthly in the region. The combined analysis sheds light on the design of the SWOT mission postlaunch Cal/Val field campaign.

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