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Richard J. Reed

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Richard J. Reed

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The relative importance of horizontal advection and vertical motion in producing the day-to-day changes in total ozone amount is calculated, and the manner in which these two factors combine to produce the well-known ozone-weather relationships is explained. The calculations show that at most one third of the range of daily values is attributable to vertical motions, the remainder presumably being the result of horizontal advection.

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Richard J. Reed

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Richard J. Reed

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The potential vorticity on isentropic surfaces is used to study a characteristic type of upper-level frontogenesis — the development of a sloping stable layer marked by strong vertical wind shear and rapid upward decrease in humidity. In the case studied it was found that the intense portion of the frontal zone consisted of a thin wedge of stratospheric air which had descended to very low levels (700 to 800 millibars), the frontal boundaries being a folded portion of the original tropopause.

The circulation within the frontal zone was indirect solenoidal, and surface cyclogenesis accompanied or slightly preceded the strengthening of the upper-level front. Although the frontal zone formed entirely within a polar air-mass, the strong adiabatic heating at and near the warm boundary could give the false impression that tropical air was present there at the end stage.

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Richard J. Reed

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Richard J. Reed

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A two-level graphical prediction model is extended so as to include the effects of heating of cold air by relatively warm water. Orographic effects are also included in the model.

The model is applied to a case of a major storm development in the Gulf of Alaska attended by a strong outbreak of Arctic air from the Alaskan mainland. In this case the effects of nonadiabatic heating and orography appeared to be significant and in a direction which tended to improve the forecast.

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Richard J. Reed

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A method is presented for preparing 1000-millibar (surface) prognostic charts. The method makes use of the graphical technique developed by Fjörtoft and is based on a baroclinic model which resembles closely that employed by Estoque in the prediction of cyclone development.

Three cases tested to date have yielded correlations of 0.93, 0.89 and 0.88 between predicted and observed 1000-mb height changes.

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Richard J. Reed

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Richard J. Reed

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Richard J. Reed

Measurements of elevation and azimuth angles, taken every six seconds by an AN/GMD-1 rawin set, are used to compute the detailed wind structure in an intense frontal zone. It is found that the vertical wind shear is discontinuous at the frontal boundaries as anticipated from the thermal wind equation.

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