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  • Author or Editor: Robert Marshall x
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Paweł Hordyniec
,
Robert Norman
, and
John Le Marshall

Abstract

Representation of complex vertical structures observed in the troposphere can vary depending on data sources. The radio occultation (RO) technique offers great advantages for sensing the atmosphere down to its lowermost layers using high-resolution measurements collected by satellites on low-Earth orbit (LEO). The structures are generally smoother in vertical when reproduced from atmospheric models. We evaluate the quality of troposphere retrievals from the COSMIC-2 mission and demonstrate that systematic effects in fractional refractivity deviations with respect to European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) background fields are spatially correlated with positive refractivity gradients characterized as subrefraction. The magnitude of refractivity biases observed mostly over the equatorial regions can exceed 1% within altitudes of 3–5 km. Respective zonal means reveal seasonal trends linked with the distribution of atmospheric inversion layers and signal-to-noise ratio values in RO data. The positive biases are vertically collocated with significant refractivity gradients in COSMIC-2 retrievals that are not reflected in the corresponding ECMWF profiles. The analysis of gradients based on COSMIC-2 data, further supported by radiosonde observations, suggests that most of subrefractions is identified in the middle troposphere at around 4 km. While the altitudes of maximum refractivity gradients from COSMIC-2 and ECMWF data are in fairly good agreement, the magnitude of ECMWF gradients is significantly smaller and rarely exceeds positive values.

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Marshall Swartz
,
Daniel J. Torres
,
Steve Liberatore
, and
Robert Millard

Abstract

A data telemetry technique for communicating over standard oceanographic sea cables that achieves a nearly 100-fold increase in bandwidth as compared to traditional systems has been recently developed and successfully used at sea on board two Research Vessel (R/V) Atlantis cruises with an 8.5-km, 0.322-in.-diameter three-conductor sea cable. The system uses commercially available modules to provide Ethernet connectivity through existing sea cables, linking serial and video underwater instrumentation to the shipboard user. The new method applies Synchronous Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL) communications technology to undersea applications, greatly increasing the opportunities to use scientific instrumentation from existing ships and sea cables at minimal cost and without modification.

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