Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 3 of 3 items for

  • Author or Editor: S. Planton x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All Modify Search
J. Noilhan
and
S. Planton

Abstract

A parameterization of land surface processes to be included in mesoscale and large-scale meteorological models is presented. The number of parameters has been reduced as much as possible, while attempting to preserve the representation of the physics which controls the energy and water budgets. We distinguish two main classes of parameters. The spatial distribution of primary parameters, i.e., the dominant types of soil and vegetation within each grid cell, can be specified from existing global datasets. The secondary parameters, describing the physical properties of each type of soil and vegetation, can be inferred from measurements or derived from numerical experiments. A single surface temperature is used to represent the surface energy balance of the land/cover system. The soil heat flux is linearly interpolated between its value over bare ground and a value of zero for complete shielding by the vegetation. The ground surface moisture equation includes the effect of gravity and the thermo-hydric coefficients of the equations have been either calculated or calibrated using textural dependent formulations. The calibration has been made using the results of a detailed soil model forced by prescribed atmospheric mean conditions. The results show that the coefficients of the surface soil moisture equation are greatly dependent upon the textural class of the soil, as well as upon its moisture content. The new scheme has been included in a one-dimensional model which allows a complete interaction between the surface and the atmosphere. Several simulations have been performed using data collected during HAPEX-MOBILHY. These first results show the ability of the parameterization to reproduce the components of the surface energy balance over a wide variety of surface conditions.

Full access
R. Vautard
,
P. Yiou
,
G.-J. van Oldenborgh
,
G. Lenderink
,
S. Thao
,
A. Ribes
,
S. Planton
,
B. Dubuisson
, and
J.-M. Soubeyroux
Full access
A. Weill
,
L. Eymard
,
G. Caniaux
,
D. Hauser
,
S. Planton
,
H. Dupuis
,
A. Brut
,
C. Guerin
,
P. Nacass
,
A. Butet
,
S. Cloché
,
R. Pedreros
,
P. Durand
,
D. Bourras
,
H. Giordani
,
G. Lachaud
, and
G. Bouhours

Abstract

An accurate determination of turbulent exchanges between the ocean and the atmosphere is a prerequisite to identify and assess the mechanisms of interaction that control part of the variability in the two media over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. An extended dataset for estimating air–sea fluxes (representing nearly 5700 h of turbulence measurements) has been collected since 1992 during six dedicated experiments performed in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. This paper presents the methodology used through the successive experiments to progress in this field. The major developments concern (i) flux instrumentation, with the deployment of a microwave refractometer to get the latent heat flux in most meteorological conditions; (ii) the analysis of airflow distortion effects around the ship structure and sensors through both computational fluid dynamics and physical simulations in a water tank, then the derivation of correction for these effects; (iii) the application of both inertial dissipation and eddy-correlation methods from the various experiments, allowing the authors to assess and discuss flux-determination methods on ships, and particularly bulk parameterization; (iv) the validation and analysis of mesoscale surface flux fields from models and satellites by using ship data, showing some deficiencies in operational model fields from ECMWF, the need of high-quality fluxes to interpret ocean–atmosphere exchanges, and the potential advantage of satellite retrieval methods. Further analysis of these datasets is being performed in a unique database (the ALBATROS project, open to the international scientific community). It will include refinement of airflow distortion correction and reprocessing of earlier datasets, the investigation of fluxes under specific conditions (low wind), and the effect of sea state among others. It will also contribute to further validation and improvements of satellite retrievals in various climatic/meteorological conditions.

Full access