Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author or Editor: Sabatino Di Michele x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All Modify Search
Peter Bauer, Emmanuel Moreau, and Sabatino Di Michele

Abstract

The retrieval errors of cloud and precipitation hydrometeor contents from spaceborne observations are estimated at microwave frequencies in atmospheric windows between 18 and 150 GHz and in oxygen absorption complexes near 50–60 and 118 GHz. The method is based on a variational retrieval framework using a priori information on the cloud, atmosphere, and surface states from ECMWF short-range forecasts under different weather regimes. This approach was chosen because a consistent description of the model state and its uncertainties is provided, which is unavailable for other methods. The results show that the sounding channels provide more stable, more accurate, and less biased retrievals than window channels—in particular, over land surfaces and with regard to snowfall. Average performance estimates showed that if sounding channels are used, 80% of all retrievals are within 100% error limits and 60% of them are within 50% error limits with regard to rainfall. For snowfall, the sounding channels produce 60% of all retrievals with errors below 100% for rates smaller than 1 mm h−1, and 50%–80% of the cases have errors below 50% for more intense snowfall.

Full access
Frank S. Marzano, Domenico Cimini, Tommaso Rossi, Daniele Mortari, Sabatino Di Michele, and Peter Bauer

Abstract

The potential of an elliptical-orbit Flower Constellation of Millimeter-Wave Radiometers (FLORAD) for humidity profile and precipitating cloud observations is analyzed and discussed. The FLORAD mission scientific requirements are aimed at the retrieval of hydrological properties of the troposphere, specifically water vapor, cloud liquid content, rainfall, and snowfall profiles. This analysis is built on the results already obtained in previous works and is specifically devoted to evaluate the possibility of (i) deploying an incremental configuration of a Flower constellation of six minisatellites, optimized to provide the maximum revisit time over the Mediterranean area or, more generally, midlatitudes (between ±35° and ±65°); and (ii) evaluating in a quantitative way the accuracy of a one-dimensional variational data assimilation (1D-Var) Bayesian retrieval scheme to derive hydrometeor profiles at quasi-global scale using an optimized set of millimeter-wave frequencies. The obtained results show that a revisit time over the Mediterranean area (latitude 25° 45′, longitude −10° 35′°) of less than about 1 and 0.5 h can be obtained with four satellites and six satellites in Flower elliptical orbits, respectively. The accuracy of the retrieved hydrometeor profiles over land and sea for a winter and summer season at several latitudes shows the beneficial performance from using a combination of channels at 89, 118, 183, and 229 GHz. A lack of lower frequencies, such as those below 50 GHz, reduces the sounding capability for cloud lower layers, but the temperature and humidity retrievals provide a useful hydrometeor profile constraint. The FLORAD mission is fully consistent with the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) scope and may significantly increase its space–time coverage. The concept of an incremental Flower constellation can ensure the flexibility to deploy a spaceborne system that achieves increasing coverage through separate launches of member spacecrafts. The choice of millimeter-wave frequencies provides the advantage of designing compact radiometers that comply well with the current technology of minisatellites (overall weight less than 500 kg). The overall budget of the FLORAD small mission might become appealing as an optimal compromise between retrieval performances and system complexity.

Full access
William Bell, Sabatino Di Michele, Peter Bauer, Tony McNally, Stephen J. English, Nigel Atkinson, Fiona Hilton, and Janet Charlton

Abstract

The sensitivity of NWP forecast accuracy with respect to the radiometric performance of microwave sounders is assessed through a series of observing system experiments at the Met Office and ECMWF. The observing system experiments compare the impact of normal data from a single Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) with that from an AMSU where synthetic noise has been added. The results show a measurable reduction in forecast improvement in the Southern Hemisphere, with improvements reduced by 11% for relatively small increases in radiometric noise [noise-equivalent brightness temperature (NEΔT) increased from 0.1 to 0.2 K for remapped data]. The impact of microwave sounding data is shown to be significantly less than was the case prior to the use of advanced infrared sounder data [Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)], with microwave sounding data now reducing Southern Hemisphere forecast errors by approximately 10% compared to 40% in the pre-AIRS/IASI period.

Full access
Vinia Mattioli, Christophe Accadia, Catherine Prigent, Susanne Crewell, Alan Geer, Patrick Eriksson, Stuart Fox, Juan R. Pardo, Eli J. Mlawer, Maria Cadeddu, Michael Bremer, Carlos De Breuck, Alain Smette, Domenico Cimini, Emma Turner, Mario Mech, Frank S. Marzano, Pascal Brunel, Jerome Vidot, Ralf Bennartz, Tobias Wehr, Sabatino Di Michele, and Viju O. John
Free access