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Robert S. Pickart and Scott S. Lindstrom

Abstract

A geostrophic velocity section across the Gulf Stream and deep western boundary current near 35°N is referenced four different ways: using a POGO float (acoustically tracked transport float), shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), and bottom current meters, and by assuming an isotherm level of no motion. The comparison between the first two techniques is emphasized because they are most easily applied. In general, reference velocities calculated using the float data agree well with those obtained from the ADCP data. However, there is disagreement at locations where the ADCP velocity is not in thermal wind balance, in which case the POGO value is deemed more accurate because the float samples deeper into the subsurface geostrophic flow. Disagreement is also caused by insufficient cross-stream POCSO spacing (although this could be avoided). The isotherm- and current meter-referenced sections, while similar to each other, both show unrealistic features. it is argued that the POGO method is preferable to the shipboard ADCP for a deep-water hydrographic experiment.

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Scott S. Lindstrom and D. Pandolph Watts

Abstract

The authors compute and compare vertical motions from three different data sources within a 300-km square domain centered in the Gulf Stream near 38°N, 68°W, and show that vertical motions inferred from all three independent data sources and different analysis methods give similar results. The time derivatives of RAFOS float pressures on isopycnal surfaces are used to determine directly observed vertical motion w RAF. Second, vertical motions are inferred from the heat equation using measured temperature changes and the backing and veering of currents observed by a stack of current meters to produce w cm. Third, vertical motions are calculated from the quasigeostrophic vorticity equation using geostrophic streamfunctions from inverted echo sounder measurements to produce w IES. w CM agrees well with W RAF from all floats that pass within 10 km of a current meter mooring. Daily fields of w CM show very good coherence with time series of w CM for periods longer than 16 d, but noise domination for periods shorter than 12 d. Typical magnitudes during strong “events” as estimated by all three data sources are on the order of 1–2 mm s−1 in regions near the center of the Gulf Stream. The characteristic spatial and temporal scales of upwelling or downwelling features are clearly defined from the horizontal maps and time series of w, and the location of these vertical motions relative to Gulf Stream mesoscale features is discerned.

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Stephen D. Jascourt, Scott S. Lindstrom, Charles J. Seman, and David D. Houghton

Abstract

Satellite imagery dramatically portrays a mesoscale organization of deep convection over the south central United States on 5 June 1986. Free convection was expected over the region. The rapid development and organization of the convection simultaneously across a broad area suggests the presence of a mesoscale instability. Analysis of satellite and conventional data suggests that a layer of weak symmetric stability modified the atmosphere's response to free convective instability, contributing to the highly organized banded structure observed.

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Timothy J. Schmit, Steven J. Goodman, Mathew M. Gunshor, Justin Sieglaff, Andrew K. Heidinger, A. Scott Bachmeier, Scott S. Lindstrom, Amanda Terborg, Joleen Feltz, Kaba Bah, Scott Rudlosky, Daniel T. Lindsey, Robert M. Rabin, and Christopher C. Schmidt

Abstract

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-14 (GOES-14) imager was operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in an experimental rapid scan 1-min mode during parts of the summers of 2012 and 2013. This scan mode, known as the super rapid scan operations for GOES-R (SRSOR), emulates the high-temporal-resolution sampling of the mesoscale region scanning of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on the next-generation GOES-R series. This paper both introduces these unique datasets and highlights future satellite imager capabilities. Many phenomena were observed from GOES-14, including fog, clouds, severe storms, fires and smoke (including the California Rim Fire), and several tropical cyclones. In 2012 over 6 days of SRSOR data of Hurricane Sandy were acquired. In 2013, the first two days of SRSOR in June observed the propagation and evolution of a mid-Atlantic derecho. The data from August 2013 were unique in that the GOES imager operated in nearly continuous 1-min mode; prior to this time, the 1-min data were interrupted every 3 h for full disk scans. Used in a number of NOAA test beds and operational centers, including NOAA’s Storm Prediction Center (SPC), the Aviation Weather Center (AWC), the Ocean Prediction Center (OPC), and the National Hurricane Center (NHC), these experimental data prepare users for the next-generation imager, which will be able to routinely acquire mesoscale (1,000 km × 1,000 km) images every 30 s (or two separate locations every minute). Several animations are included, showcasing the rapid change of the many phenomena observed during SRSOR from the GOES-14 imager.

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Molly Baringer, Mariana B. Bif, Tim Boyer, Seth M. Bushinsky, Brendan R. Carter, Ivona Cetinić, Don P. Chambers, Lijing Cheng, Sanai Chiba, Minhan Dai, Catia M. Domingues, Shenfu Dong, Andrea J. Fassbender, Richard A. Feely, Eleanor Frajka-Williams, Bryan A. Franz, John Gilson, Gustavo Goni, Benjamin D. Hamlington, Zeng-Zhen Hu, Boyin Huang, Masayoshi Ishii, Svetlana Jevrejeva, William E. Johns, Gregory C. Johnson, Kenneth S. Johnson, John Kennedy, Marion Kersalé, Rachel E. Killick, Peter Landschützer, Matthias Lankhorst, Tong Lee, Eric Leuliette, Feili Li, Eric Lindstrom, Ricardo Locarnini, Susan Lozier, John M. Lyman, John J. Marra, Christopher S. Meinen, Mark A. Merrifield, Gary T. Mitchum, Ben Moat, Didier Monselesan, R. Steven Nerem, Renellys C. Perez, Sarah G. Purkey, Darren Rayner, James Reagan, Nicholas Rome, Alejandra Sanchez-Franks, Claudia Schmid, Joel P. Scott, Uwe Send, David A. Siegel, David A. Smeed, Sabrina Speich, Paul W. Stackhouse Jr., William Sweet, Yuichiro Takeshita, Philip R. Thompson, Joaquin A. Triñanes, Martin Visbeck, Denis L. Volkov, Rik Wanninkhof, Robert A. Weller, Toby K. Westberry, Matthew J. Widlansky, Susan E. Wijffels, Anne C. Wilber, Lisan Yu, Weidong Yu, and Huai-Min Zhang
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