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  • Author or Editor: Sonia N. Gitlin x
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Sonia N. Gitlin


Electron microproble X-ray analysis was used to determine the origin and composition of particulate matter found in hailstones produced during severe storms in the midwestern and central United States.

Ratios of aluminum, potassium, calcium, sodium and chlorine X-ray counts to silicon counts were measured for soil samples collected on the ground and compared with ratios for aerosols collected by aircraft and for the particles found in hailstones.

Hailstones had higher ratios of K/Si and Ca/Si and lower ratios of Al/Si than the ratios found in soils. Chlorine (absent in dry soil particles) and sodium were found in the hailstones, suggesting that these elements may belong to a compound that is marine in origin.

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Sonia N. Gitlin
H. Scott Fogler
, and
Guy G. Goyer


A calorimetric method for measuring the liquid water content of hailstones has been developed. When parameters such as the radiative losses of the system and the changes in heat capacity of the apparatus are eliminated by performing all measurements under identical conditions, the temperature drop is linearly related to the mass of ice melted. For equal masses the temperature drop is smaller if water is present, and there is a linear relationship between the changes in temperature drop and the amount of water present. The water content of hailstones can then be determined from a calibration plot of the changes in temperature drop as a function of the water content of ice.

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