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  • Author or Editor: W. L. Smith x
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W. L. Smith

The importance of global atmospheric temperature soundings determined from satellite radiometric measurements has long been recognized by the scientific community. Several remote sounding techniques have been proposed for determining the thermal structure of the atmosphere. This paper reviews the physical concepts of various satellite sounding methods showing empirical results to demonstrate their viability.

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G. A. M. Kelly
,
G. A. Mills
, and
W. L. Smith

To test the impact of high-resolution Nimbus-6 sounding data on Australian region forecasts, two parallel analysis/forecast cycling experiments were carried out, using data for 14 days during August and September 1975. In one of these cycles, only conventional data and manual interpretation of satellite imagery were used as input, while the other cycle used conventional and Nimbus-6 sounding data. A manual mean sea level pressure analysis was used in each cycle to provide reference level information over the oceans.

Two series of 24 h limited area prognoses were prepared from these two sets of analyses, using the primitive equations prognosis model developed at the Australian Numerical Meteorology Research Centre. An average improvement in geopotential forecasts of more than 5 skill score points was achieved at all levels over the Australian continent when the Nimbus-6 data were included in the base analyses. Also, significant reductions were obtained in 24 h forecast root-mean-square (rms) temperature errors.

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W. L. Smith
,
V. E. Suomi
,
W. P. Menzel
,
H. M. Woolf
,
L. A. Sromovsky
,
H. E. Revercomb
,
C. M. Hayden
,
D. N. Erickson
, and
F. R. Mosher

First results are presented from an experiment to sound the atmosphere's temperature and moisture distribution from a geostationary satellite. Sounding inferences in clear and partially cloudy conditions have the anticipated accuracy and horizontal and vertical resolutions. Most important is the preliminary indication that small but significant temporal variations of atmospheric temperature and moisture can be observed by the geostationary satellite sounder. Quantitative assessment of the accuracy and meteorological utility of this new sounding capability must await the accumulation of results over the coming months.

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D. R. Smith
,
M. A. Rosenthal
,
J. P. Mulvany
,
W. Sanford
,
W. R. Krayer
,
B. L. Smith
,
B. S. Palko
,
J. J. Matkins
,
G. J. Koester
,
R. L. Lees
, and
P. A. McKinstry

For the third consecutive year mid-Atlantic Atmospheric Education Resource Agents (AERAs) conducted a regional workshop for educators on hazardous weather. This workshop attracted teachers from New York to Georgia for sessions by Project ATMOSPHERE AERAs, meteorologists from the National Weather Service, universities, the media, and private industry, who addressed a variety of topics pertaining to the impact of severe weather. As has been the case with the previous workshops, this event represents a partnership of individuals from schools, government agencies, and the private sector that enhances science education and increases public awareness of hazardous weather conditions.

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Steven A. Ackerman
,
Ed W. Eloranta
,
Chris J. Grund
,
Robert O. Knuteson
,
Henry E. Revercomb
,
William L. Smith
, and
Donald P. Wylie

During the period of 26 October 1989 through 6 December 1989 a unique complement of measurements was made at the University of Wisconsin—Madison to study the radiative properties of cirrus clouds. Simultaneous observations were obtained from a scanning lidar, two interferometers, a high spectral resolution lidar, geostationary and polar orbiting satellites, radiosonde launches, and a whole-sky imager. This paper describes the experiment, the instruments deployed, and, as an example, the data collected during one day of the experiment.

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James A. Brey
,
Elizabeth W. Mills
,
Ira W. Geer
,
Robert S. Weinbeck
,
Kira A. Nugnes
,
Katie L. O’Neill
,
Bernard A. Blair
,
David R. Smith
, and
Edward J. Hopkins
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William L. Smith
,
R. O. Knuteson
,
H. E. Revercomb
,
W. Feltz
,
H. B. Howell
,
W. P. Menzel
,
N. R. Nalli
,
Otis Brown
,
James Brown
,
Peter Minnett
, and
Walter McKeown

The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) was used to measure the infrared radiative properties and the temperature of the Gulf of Mexico during a 5-day oceanographic cruise in January 1995. The ocean skin temperature was measured with an accuracy believed to be better than 0.1 °C. The surface reflectivity/emissivity was determined as a function of view angle and sea state. The radiative properties are in good theoretical consistency with in situ measurements of ocean bulk temperature and the meteorological observations made from the oceanographic vessel. The AERI and in situ measurements provide a strong basis for accurate global specifications of sea surface temperature and ocean heat flux from satellites and ships.

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P. A. Phoebus
,
D. R. Smith
,
R. A. McPherson
,
M. J. Hayes
,
J. M. Moran
,
P. J. Croft
,
J. T. Snow
,
E. S. Takle
,
R. L. Fauquet
,
L. M. Bastiaans
, and
J. W. Zeitler

The American Meteorological Society (AMS) held its Seventh Symposium on Education in conjunction with the 78th AMS Annual Meeting. The theme of the symposium was “Atmospheric and Oceanographic Education: Advancing Our Awareness.” Thirty-six oral presentations and 47 poster presentations summarized a variety of educational programs or examined educational issues relevant for both the precollege and university levels.

There were also joint sessions held with the Second Conference on Coastal Atmospheric and Oceanic Prediction and Processes and the Ninth Conference on Interaction of the Sea and Atmosphere, as well as the 10th Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instruments. Over 200 people representing a wide spectrum of the Society attended one or more of the sessions during this two-day event.

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J. A. Curry
,
A. Bentamy
,
M. A. Bourassa
,
D. Bourras
,
E. F. Bradley
,
M. Brunke
,
S. Castro
,
S. H. Chou
,
C. A. Clayson
,
W. J. Emery
,
L. Eymard
,
C. W. Fairall
,
M. Kubota
,
B. Lin
,
W. Perrie
,
R. A. Reeder
,
I. A. Renfrew
,
W. B. Rossow
,
J. Schulz
,
S. R. Smith
,
P. J. Webster
,
G. A. Wick
, and
X. Zeng

High-resolution surface fluxes over the global ocean are needed to evaluate coupled atmosphere–ocean models and weather forecasting models, provide surface forcing for ocean models, understand the regional and temporal variations of the exchange of heat between the atmosphere and ocean, and provide a large-scale context for field experiments. Under the auspices of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Radiation Panel, the SEAFLUX Project has been initiated to investigate producing a high-resolution satellite-based dataset of surface turbulent fluxes over the global oceans to complement the existing products for surface radiation fluxes and precipitation. The SEAFLUX Project includes the following elements: a library of in situ data, with collocated satellite data to be used in the evaluation and improvement of global flux products; organized intercomparison projects, to evaluate and improve bulk flux models and determination from the satellite of the input parameters; and coordinated evaluation of the flux products in the context of applications, such as forcing ocean models and evaluation of coupled atmosphere–ocean models. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the status of global ocean surface flux products, the methodology being used by SEAFLUX, and the prospects for improvement of satellite-derived flux products.

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Sarah J. Doherty
,
Stephan Bojinski
,
Ann Henderson-Sellers
,
Kevin Noone
,
David Goodrich
,
Nathaniel L. Bindoff
,
John A. Church
,
Kathy A. Hibbard
,
Thomas R. Karl
,
Lucka Kajfez-Bogataj
,
Amanda H. Lynch
,
David E. Parker
,
I. Colin Prentice
,
Venkatachalam Ramaswamy
,
Roger W. Saunders
,
Mark Stafford Smith
,
Konrad Steffen
,
Thomas F. Stocker
,
Peter W. Thorne
,
Kevin E. Trenberth
,
Michel M. Verstraete
, and
Francis W. Zwiers

The Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that global warming is “unequivocal” and that most of the observed increase since the mid-twentieth century is very likely due to the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations, with discernible human influences on ocean warming, continental-average temperatures, temperature extremes, wind patterns, and other physical and biological indicators, impacting both socioeconomic and ecological systems. It is now clear that we are committed to some level of global climate change, and it is imperative that this be considered when planning future climate research and observational strategies. The Global Climate Observing System program (GCOS), the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), and the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) therefore initiated a process to summarize the lessons learned through AR4 Working Groups I and II and to identify a set of high-priority modeling and observational needs. Two classes of recommendations emerged. First is the need to improve climate models, observational and climate monitoring systems, and our understanding of key processes. Second, the framework for climate research and observations must be extended to document impacts and to guide adaptation and mitigation efforts. Research and observational strategies specifically aimed at improving our ability to predict and understand impacts, adaptive capacity, and societal and ecosystem vulnerabilities will serve both purposes and are the subject of the specific recommendations made in this paper.

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