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Armin Dehghan
,
Zen Mariani
,
Sylvie Leroyer
,
David Sills
,
Stéphane Bélair
, and
Paul Joe

Abstract

Canadian Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) numerical model output was compared with the meteorological data from an enhanced observational network to investigate the model’s ability to predict Lake Ontario lake breezes and their characteristics for two cases in the Greater Toronto Area—one in which the large-scale wind opposed the lake breeze and one in which it was in the same direction as the lake breeze. An enhanced observational network of surface meteorological stations, a C-band radar, and two Doppler wind lidars were deployed among other sensors during the 2015 Pan and Parapan American Games in Toronto. The GEM model was run for three nested domains with grid spacings of 2.5, 1, and 0.25 km. Comparisons between the model predictions and ground-based observations showed that the model successfully predicted lake breezes for the two events. The results indicated that using GEM 1 and 0.25 km increased the forecast accuracy of the lake-breeze location, updraft intensity, and depth. The accuracy of the modeled lake breeze timing was approximately ±135 min. The model underpredicted the surface cooling caused by the lake breeze. The GEM 0.25-km model significantly improved the temperature forecast accuracy during the lake-breeze circulations, reducing the bias by up to 72%, but it mainly underpredicted the moisture and overpredicted the surface wind speed. Root-mean-square errors of wind direction forecasts were generally high because of large biases and high variability of errors.

Open access
Ellen Eckert
,
David Hudak
,
Éva Mekis
,
Peter Rodriguez
,
Bo Zhao
,
Zen Mariani
,
Stella Melo
,
Kimberly Strong
, and
Kaley A. Walker

Abstract

To assess the performance of the most recent versions of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Integrated Multisatellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG), namely, V05 and V06, in Arctic regions, comparisons with Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) Climate Network stations north of 60°N were performed. This study focuses on the IMERG monthly final products. The mean bias and mean error-weighted bias were assessed in comparison with 25 precipitation gauge measurements at ECCC Climate Network stations. The results of this study indicate that IMERG generally detects higher precipitation rates in the Canadian Arctic than ground-based gauge instruments, with differences ranging up to 0.05 and 0.04 mm h−1 for the mean bias and the mean error-weighted bias, respectively. Both IMERG versions perform similarly, except for a few stations, where V06 tends to agree slightly better with ground-based measurements. IMERG’s tendency to detect more precipitation is in good agreement with findings indicating that weighing gauge measurements suffer from wind undercatch and other impairing factors, leading to lower precipitation estimates. Biases between IMERG and ground-based stations were found to be slightly larger during summer and fall, which is likely related to the increased precipitation rates during these seasons. Correlations of both versions of IMERG with the ground-based measurements are considerably lower in winter and spring than during summer and fall, which might be linked to issues that passive microwave (PMW) sensors encounter over ice and snow. However, high correlation coefficients with medians of 0.75–0.8 during summer and fall are very encouraging for potential future applications.

Open access
Paul Joe
,
Stella Melo
,
William R. Burrows
,
Barbara Casati
,
Robert W. Crawford
,
Armin Deghan
,
Gabrielle Gascon
,
Zen Mariani
,
Jason Milbrandt
, and
Kevin Strawbridge
Full access
Paul Joe
,
Stella Melo
,
William R. Burrows
,
Barbara Casati
,
Robert W. Crawford
,
Armin Deghan
,
Gabrielle Gascon
,
Zen Mariani
,
Jason Milbrandt
, and
Kevin Strawbridge

Abstract

The goal of the Canadian Arctic Weather Science (CAWS) project is to conduct research into the future operational monitoring and forecasting programs of Environment and Climate Change Canada in the Arctic where increased economic and recreational activities are expected with enhanced transportation and search and rescue requirements. Due to cost, remoteness and vast geographical coverage, the future monitoring concept includes a combination of space-based observations, sparse in situ surface measurements, and advanced reference sites. A prototype reference site has been established at Iqaluit, Nunavut (63°45'N, 68°33'W), that includes a Ka-band radar, water vapor lidars (both in-house and commercial versions), multiple Doppler lidars, ceilometers, radiation flux, and precipitation sensors. The scope of the project includes understanding of the polar processes, evaluating new technologies, validation of satellite products, validation of numerical weather prediction systems, development of warning products, and communication of their risk to a variety of users. This contribution will provide an overview of the CAWS project to show some preliminary results and to encourage collaborations.

Free access
Julie M. Thériault
,
Nicolas R. Leroux
,
Ronald E. Stewart
,
André Bertoncini
,
Stephen J. Déry
,
John W. Pomeroy
,
Hadleigh D. Thompson
,
Hilary Smith
,
Zen Mariani
,
Aurélie Desroches-Lapointe
,
Selina Mitchell
, and
Juris Almonte

Abstract

The Canadian Rockies are a triple-continental divide, whose high mountains are drained by major snow-fed and rain-fed rivers flowing to the Pacific, Atlantic, and Arctic Oceans. The objective of the April–June 2019 Storms and Precipitation Across the continental Divide Experiment (SPADE) was to determine the atmospheric processes producing precipitation on the eastern and western sides of the Canadian Rockies during springtime, a period when upslope events of variable phase dominate precipitation on the eastern slopes. To do so, three observing sites across the divide were instrumented with advanced meteorological sensors. During the 13 observed events, the western side recorded only 25% of the eastern side’s precipitation accumulation, rainfall occurred rather than snowfall, and skies were mainly clear. Moisture sources and amounts varied markedly between events. An atmospheric river landfall in California led to moisture flowing persistently northward and producing the longest duration of precipitation on both sides of the divide. Moisture from the continental interior always produced precipitation on the eastern side but only in specific conditions on the western side. Mainly slow-falling ice crystals, sometimes rimed, formed at higher elevations on the eastern side (>3 km MSL), were lifted, and subsequently drifted westward over the divide during nonconvective storms to produce rain at the surface on the western side. Overall, precipitation generally crossed the divide in the Canadian Rockies during specific spring-storm atmospheric conditions although amounts at the surface varied with elevation, condensate type, and local and large-scale flow fields.

Free access