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Wenxin Fan
Yi Liu
Adrian Chappell
Li Dong
Rongrong Xu
Marie Ekström
Tzung-May Fu
, and
Zhenzhong Zeng


Global reanalysis products are important tools across disciplines to study past meteorological changes and are especially useful for wind energy resource evaluations. Studies of observed wind speed show that land surface wind speed declined globally since the 1960s (known as global terrestrial stilling) but reversed with a turning point around 2010. Whether the declining trend and the turning point have been captured by reanalysis products remains unknown so far. To fill this research gap, a systematic assessment of climatological winds and trends in five reanalysis products (ERA5, ERA-Interim, MERRA-2, JRA-55, and CFSv2) was conducted by comparing gridcell time series of 10-m wind speed with observational data from 1439 in situ meteorological stations for the period 1989–2018. Overall, ERA5 is the closest to the observations according to the evaluation of climatological winds. However, substantial discrepancies were found between observations and simulated wind speeds. No reanalysis product showed similar change to that of the global observations, although some showed regional agreement. This discrepancy between observed and reanalysis land surface wind speed indicates the need for prudence when using reanalysis products for the evaluation and prediction of winds. The possible reasons for the inconsistent wind speed trends between reanalysis products and observations are analyzed. The results show that wind energy production should select different products for different regions to minimize the discrepancy with observations.

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