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Tatsuya Seiki, Chihiro Kodama, Akira T. Noda, and Masaki Satoh


This study examines the impact of an alteration of a cloud microphysics scheme on the representation of longwave cloud radiative forcing (LWCRF) and its impact on the atmosphere in global cloud-system-resolving simulations. A new double-moment bulk cloud microphysics scheme is used, and the simulated results are compared with those of a previous study. It is demonstrated that improvements within the new cloud microphysics scheme have the potential to substantially improve climate simulations. The new cloud microphysics scheme represents a realistic spatial distribution of the cloud fraction and LWCRF, particularly near the tropopause. The improvement in the cirrus cloud-top height by the new cloud microphysics scheme substantially reduces the warm bias in atmospheric temperature from the previous simulation via LWCRF by the cirrus clouds. The conversion rate of cloud ice to snow and gravitational sedimentation of cloud ice are the most important parameters for determining the strength of the radiative heating near the tropopause and its impact on atmospheric temperature.

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Ying-Wen Chen, Tatsuya Seiki, Chihiro Kodama, Masaki Satoh, Akira T. Noda, and Yohei Yamada


This study examines cloud responses to global warming using a global nonhydrostatic model with two different cloud microphysics schemes. The cloud microphysics schemes tested here are the single- and double-moment schemes with six water categories: these schemes are referred to as NSW6 and NDW6, respectively. Simulations of one year for NSW6 and one boreal summer for NDW6 are performed using the nonhydrostatic icosahedral atmospheric model with a mesh size of approximately 14 km. NSW6 and NDW6 exhibit similar changes in the visible cloud fraction under conditions of global warming. The longwave (LW) cloud radiative feedbacks in NSW6 and NDW6 are within the upper half of the phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5)–Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project 2 (CFMIP2) range. The LW cloud radiative feedbacks are mainly attributed to cirrus clouds, which prevail more in the tropics under global warming conditions. For NDW6, the LW cloud radiative feedbacks from cirrus clouds also extend to midlatitudes. The changes in cirrus clouds and their effects on LW cloud radiative forcing (LWCRF) are assessed based on changes in the effective radii of ice hydrometeors () and the cloud fraction. It was determined that an increase in has a nonnegligible impact on LWCRF compared with an increase in cloud fraction.

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Yohei Yamada, Masaki Satoh, Masato Sugi, Chihiro Kodama, Akira T. Noda, Masuo Nakano, and Tomoe Nasuno


Future changes in tropical cyclone (TC) activity and structure are investigated using the outputs of a 14-km mesh climate simulation. A set of 30-yr simulations was performed under present-day and warmer climate conditions using a nonhydrostatic icosahedral atmospheric model with explicitly calculated convection. The model projected that the global frequency of TCs is reduced by 22.7%, the ratio of intense TCs is increased by 6.6%, and the precipitation rate within 100 km of the TC center increased by 11.8% under warmer climate conditions. These tendencies are consistent with previous studies using a hydrostatic global model with cumulus parameterization.

The responses of vertical and horizontal structures to global warming are investigated for TCs with the same intensity categories. For TCs whose minimum sea level pressure (SLP) reaches less than 980 hPa, the model predicted that tangential wind increases in the outside region of the eyewall. Increases in the tangential wind are related to the elevation of the tropopause caused by global warming. The tropopause rise induces an upward extension of the eyewall, resulting in an increase in latent heating in the upper layers of the inclined eyewall. Thus, SLP is reduced underneath the warmed eyewall regions through hydrostatic adjustment. The altered distribution of SLP enhances tangential winds in the outward region of the eyewall cloud. Hence, this study shows that the horizontal scale of TCs defined by a radius of 12 m s−1 surface wind is projected to increase compared with the same intensity categories for SLP less than 980 hPa.

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