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L. Mahrt
Dean Vickers
Edgar L Andreas
, and
Djamal Khelif


The variation of the sea surface sensible heat flux is investigated using data from the Gulf of Tehuantepec Experiment (GOTEX) and from eight additional aircraft datasets representing a variety of surface conditions. This analysis focuses on near-neutral conditions because these conditions are common over the sea and are normally neglected, partly because of uncertain reliability of measurements of the small air–sea temperature difference. For all of the datasets, upward heat flux is observed for slightly stable conditions. The frequency of this “countergradient” heat flux increases with increasing wind speed and is possibly related to sea spray or microscale variations of surface temperature on the wave scale. Upward area-averaged sensible heat flux for slightly stable conditions can also be generated by mesoscale heterogeneity of the sea surface temperature (SST). Significant measurement errors cannot be ruled out.

The countergradient heat flux for weakly stable conditions is least systematic for weaker winds, even though it occurs with weak winds in all of the datasets. In an effort to reduce offset errors and different SST processing and calibration procedures among field programs, the authors adjusted the SST in each field program to minimize the countergradient flux for weak winds. With or without this adjustment for the combined dataset, the extent of the upward heat flux for weakly stable conditions increases with increasing wind speed.

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