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Kenneth Sassen and Steven K. Krueger

. REFERENCESFraser, A. B., and C. F. Bohren, 1992: Is virga rain that evaporates before reaching the ground? Mon. Wea. Rev., 120, 1565-1571.Krueger, S. K., and R. M. Wakimoto, 1985: Numerical simulationof dry microbursts. Preprints, 14th Conf. on Severe Local Storms.Indianapolis, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 163-166.Sassen, K., 1977: Lidar observations of high plains thunderstorm precipitation. J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 1444-1457.--, 1991: The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: A review and current

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Pieter Groenemeijer, Christian Barthlott, Ulrich Corsmeier, Jan Handwerker, Martin Kohler, Christoph Kottmeier, Holger Mahlke, Andreas Wieser, Andreas Behrendt, Sandip Pal, Marcus Radlach, Volker Wulfmeyer, and Jörg Trentmann

al. 1998 ; Marsham et al. 2007 ). Other processes include the interaction of convective up- and downdrafts with the flow in the mid- and upper troposphere, and with stable, dry layers or lids ( Morcrette et al. 2007 ). A major part of this case study concerns yet another interaction, namely, that which resulted in a dry and warm downdraft that has positive thermal buoyancy. It formed as a response to the upward mass flux associated with the convective updrafts. Observations of such compensatory

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Paul M. Markowski, Nathan T. Lis, David D. Turner, Temple R. Lee, and Michael S. Buban

of vertical wind profiles within the surface layer, both near and within convective storms, and their departures from MOST. We analyze data obtained from a Doppler lidar and instrumented towers deployed during the Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment–Southeast (VORTEX-SE) field campaign during the spring of 2017. We are in desperate need of near-surface wind observations—and knowledge of their departures from MOST—in order to assess the credibility of present

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M. Kästner, K. T. Kriebel, R. Meerkötter, W. Renger, G. H. Ruppersberg, and P. Wendling

, R. G., S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, Ch. Ham, and W. T. Grandy Jr., 1990: Backscatter and extinction in water clouds. J. Geophys. Res., 88, 6787-6796.Plass, G. N., G. W. Kattawar, and F. E. Catchings, 1973: Matrix operator-theory of radiative transfer. Appl. Opt., 12, 314-329.Platt, C. M. R., D. W. Reynolds, and N. L. Abshire, 1980: Satellite and lidar observations of the albedo, emittance and optical depth of cirrus compared to model calculations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 195-204.Pollinger

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F. Ravetta and G. Ancellet

distributions of long-lived trace gases, ozone, and light hydrocarbons that transport and mixing probably exist in a COL system without specifying mechanisms responsible for such transport. To better understand these mechanisms, Price and Vaughan (1993) followed the time evolution of ozone in a COL using satellite observations, but limited vertical resolution of these data and difficulty accounting for the effect of clouds made interpretation difficult. More recently, ground-based lidar observations with

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Belay Demoz, Cyrille Flamant, Tammy Weckwerth, David Whiteman, Keith Evans, Frédéric Fabry, Paolo Di Girolamo, David Miller, Bart Geerts, William Brown, Geary Schwemmer, Bruce Gentry, Wayne Feltz, and Zhien Wang

dimension of the box being parallel to the dryline. In this section, we examine the horizontal variability of the moisture field in the BL as observed by L2 on 22 May 2002 along one of the early east–west survey legs (shown in Fig. 1 ). Horizontal pointing DIAL measurements made in the framework of IHOP_2002 provided the first ever lidar observations of the horizontal structure of the water vapor field in the vicinity of drylines. The two-dimensional horizontal structure of the water vapor field

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David A. Rahn, Thomas R. Parish, and David Leon

m the temperature profile follows a dry adiabatic lapse rate indicating a well-mixed layer. Just below the subsidence inversion the dewpoint indicates saturation, consistent with the lidar and satellite observations of a thin cloud. Below 300 m the temperature no longer follows the dry adiabatic lapse rate and becomes a few degrees cooler than the air above, representing another cooler, stable layer below. Perhaps the most compelling evidence of the existence of three distinct layers is the wind

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Hélène Chepfer, Gérard Brogniez, Laurent Sauvage, Pierre H. Flamant, Vincent Trouillet, and Jacques Pelon

. Ingram, 1989: CO 2 and climate: A missing feedback? Nature, 341, 132–134. Pelon, J., P. H. Flamant, and M. Meissonnier, 1990: The French airborne backscatter lidar LEANDRE-1: Concept and operation. 15th Int. Laser Radar Conf., Tomsk, USSR, Institute of Atmospheric Optics, 36–39. Platt, C. M. R., 1973: Lidar and radiometric observations of cirrus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 30, 1191–1204. ——, 1978: Lidar backscatter

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Brian J. Vanderwende, Julie K. Lundquist, Michael E. Rhodes, Eugene S. Takle, and Samantha L. Irvin

measurements are taken along four cardinal directions at an inclination of 62.5° above the horizon. The lidar beam cycles through those four angles and after a full rotation uses the retrieved radial observations to calculate a vertical profile of wind vectors ( Lundquist et al. 2014b ). For this experiment, the lidar was configured to measure from 40 to 220 m AGL at 20-m increments, as in previous CWEX experiments ( Rhodes and Lundquist 2013 ). In practice, the maximum height of the profile depends on the

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Hristo G. Chipilski, Xuguang Wang, and David B. Parsons

additional period of 6 h. The model configuration described so far serves as a control experiment and is referred to as BASELINE hereafter. Additional data impact experiments were also conducted, in which PECAN observations from IOP20 were assimilated on the d03 domain. The name of those experiments alongside with optimally tuned 2 localization values for EnKF are summarized in Table 3 . Arguably, the vertical localization value in LIDAR_VAD is relatively large, especially in view of the rapidly

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