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D. H. Staelin, A. L. Cassel, K. F. Kunzi, R. L. Pettyjohn, R. K. L. Poon, P. W. Rosenkranz, and J. W. Waters

) Microwave Spectrometer (HEMS) hasbeen making passive microwave measurements of globalatmospheric temperature profiles as well as measurements of atmospheric water content and other geophysical parameters. Preliminary NEMS results werereported by Staelin et at. (1973) and earlier aircraft observations with HEMS were discussed by Rosenkranzet el. (1972). The general principles of remote sensingwith passive microwave techniques have been reviewedelsewhere (Staelin, 1969). The five-channel NEMS was

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Patrick Thaddeus

JULY 1968 POST CONFERENCE REPORTS 665Dependence of the Radio and Radar Spectra of Venus on Surface Conditions PATRICK THADDEUSInstitute for Space Studies, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, New York, N. Y.(Manuscript received 13 May 1968) Kuznfin and Vetukhnovskaya (1968) suggest thatground pressures in the range from 20 to 70 atm satisfythe passive radio observations

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Edward C. Mohnahan

: Percentage foam vs wind velocity. Internal Rept., University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla.Williams, G. F., Jr., 1969: Microwave radiometry of the ocean, and the possibility of marine wind velocity determination from satellite observations. J. Geophys. R*s., 74, 4591-4594.Reply~ EDWARD C. MONAHANDept. of Meteorology and Oceanograpl~y, Tl~e University of Michigan, Ann Arbor19 July 1970 The suggestion put forth in the preceding comment(Williams, 1970) on our fresh water whitecap paper

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Wesley Berg, William Olson, Ralph Ferraro, Steven J. Goodman, and Frank J. LaFontaine

(Japan) The first AIP was conducted over Japan and the surrounding ocean regions during June–August 1989. Results from a total of 27 algorithms were submitted, including eight that used only passive microwave observations from SSM/I. The D-Matrix algorithm is referred to as the Ferriday algorithm in the AIP-1 report ( Lee et al. 1991 ). Because this intercomparison took place prior to the development of the Cal/Val algorithm, it was not included. A composite rainfall dataset produced from over 1300

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George Ohring and Joseph Mariano

between thetwo solstices are due to differences in the planet'sdistance from the sun. It is of interest to compare the computed temperatures with observational indications of Martian temperatures and with other theoretical estimates. Indications of surface temperature are available from microwave and infrared observations. Unfortunately, boththe infrared and microwave observations are of thesunlit side of the planet and are therefore representativeof daytime temperatures rather than the average

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P. Bauer, J. P. V. Poiares Baptista, and M. de Iulis

the rainfall retrieval techniques that use passive microwave measurements. Those algorithms that explicitly include stratiform precipitation for modeling the radiative transfer do not properly account for melting (e.g., Liu and Curry 1992 ; Bauer and Schluessel 1993 ). Schols et al. (1995) compared mesoscale model simulations with aircraft and satellite observations in order to explain unusually high brightness temperatures ( T B ) at 85.5 GHz observed by the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM

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S. Solomon, R. R. Garcia, J. J. Olivero, R. M. Bevilacqua, P. R. Schwartz, R. T. Clancy, and D. O. Muhleman

ever before. Microwave studies suggest that greater CO abundances arcpresent in winter than in summer at midlatitudes,which has been interpreted to be a result of downwardtransport by the mean meridional circulation duringthe winter season (Clancy et al., 1982, 1984). In thispaper, we present a modeling study of the behaviorof carbon monoxide in the middle atmosphere. Comparisons of calculations with observations and theirinferences for transport processes will be discussed.The calculated

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Guosheng Liu

) the brightness temperatures relative to those of solid spheres (soft spheres). In conclusion, the approximations developed in this study are very useful for modeling high-frequency microwave radiances with a reasonable accuracy while keeping the computations efficient. 6. Conclusions As high-frequency microwave data from satellite and airborne observations became available for retrieving ice water path and snowfall rate, there are increasing demands for a better method to calculate the complicated

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Kazuaki Yasunaga and Brian Mapes

. , S. Tulich , J. Lin , and P. Zuidema , 2006 : The mesoscale convection life cycle: Building block or prototype for large-scale tropical waves? Dyn. Atmos. Oceans , 42 , 3 – 29 . Mapes , B. E. , R. Milliff , and J. Morzel , 2009 : Composite life cycle of maritime tropical mesoscale convective systems in scatterometer and microwave satellite observations . J. Atmos. Sci. , 66 , 199 – 208 . Masunaga , H. , 2009 : A 9-season TRMM observation of the austral summer MJO and

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W. L. Smith, H. B. Howell, and H. M. Woolf

clouds. Microwave sounders, high horizontalresolution IR sounders and interactive processingtechniques have removed most of the interference dueto the presence of cloud (Smith et al., 1978). The resultsso far, especially when using manual quality controlprocedures, are tantalizingly close to what is required;but there is not yet enough margin to meet atmosphericrequirements fully. The sounding approach presented here would providethe higher vertical resolution needed for improvedstudies of

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