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Antoine Hochet, Thierry Huck, and Alain Colin de Verdière

1. Introduction During the last 20 yr, the measurements of the ocean surface properties by satellite instruments have allowed us to significantly increase our knowledge of ocean dynamics. Chelton and Schlax (1996) were among the first to show that large-scale anomalies, propagating to the west, were observable in the altimetry. Since then, a large number of authors have described these anomalies, generally depicted as Rossby waves, using various techniques such as a Hovmöller diagram

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Jaclyn N. Brown, J. Stuart Godfrey, and Susan E. Wijffels

1. Introduction The ocean currents in the equatorial Pacific are significantly nonlinear. Contributing to this nonlinearity are eddies, such as tropical instability waves (TIWs) (e.g., Legeckis 1997 ; McCreary and Yu 1992 ; Baturin and Niiler 1997 ). TIWs appear as oscillations of the currents, sea level, and sea surface temperature in the eastern equatorial Pacific. These disturbances are mixed barotropic/baroclinic instabilities feeding on the kinetic and potential energy of the mean

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Jamie MacMahan

1. Introduction Over land, the geometric roughness k and corresponding aerodynamic roughness z o for surface features can be considered temporally constant. Over the open ocean, z o is a function of both surface texture (associated viscous surface stresses) and the local wave field (associated form drag and flow separation). The associated stresses are dynamically coupled with the wind, can evolve together, and transition from viscous stresses to wave stresses. Nonlocal wave fields

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Juan M. Restrepo

Komen et al. (1984) ]. A dynamic of whitecapping that has an obvious cause and effect is the dissipation it imparts on the waves and currents. The effective dissipation sometimes changes dramatically when a sudden change in wind strength and/or wind direction occurs. Whitecapping has no complete theory, and inclusion of its effects in ocean dynamics models is accomplished via parameterizations, some of which can be very sophisticated [ WAMDI Group (1988) ; Alves and Banner (2003) ; Komen et al

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Julien Jouanno, Frédéric Marin, Yves du Penhoat, and Jean-Marc Molines

associated with the tropical instability waves (TIWs), which are triggered by the instabilities of the tropical oceanic currents (e.g., von Schuckmann et al. 2008 ; Perez et al. 2012 ). Besides the observational evidence that the 15-day variability of the meridional surface velocities is forced by the wind, the dynamical response of the upper ocean to 15-day wind fluctuations is still not fully understood. As mentioned by Picaut (1984) , there is a discrepancy between the zonal wavelengths of the

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Lars Czeschel, Carsten Eden, and Richard J. Greatbatch

-driven stratified ocean is initially strongly modified by variable topography, and it is only when most baroclinic Rossby waves emitted from the wind forcing have reached the western boundary that flat-bottom Sverdrup balance tends to be reached ( Anderson and Killworth 1977 ). Anderson and Corry (1985a) show that transport variation can be related to barotropic Rossby waves generated by wind stress and wind stress curls acting over variable bottom topography. In addition, baroclinic Kelvin waves from the

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Christopher J. Zappa, Michael L. Banner, Russel P. Morison, and Sophia E. Brumer

central role of surface and breaking waves in upper ocean dynamics and air–sea fluxes, wave and breaking measurements are paramount. The dissipation of wave energy in the energetic part of the spectrum has attracted considerable recent interest. Presently, parametric versions of S ds based on satellite data are used in the context of active whitecap fraction ( Anguelova and Hwang 2016 ), of ocean swell dissipation ( Ardhuin et al. 2009 ), and of the TKE dissipation rate due to breaking ( Hwang and

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Christopher C. Chapman, Andrew McC. Hogg, Andrew E. Kiss, and Stephen R. Rintoul

baroclinicity. Energy is passed from one eddy to another in the downstream development process. Danielson et al. (2006) presented an example of this effect in an analysis of cyclone development over the North Pacific using atmospheric reanalysis data. A single wave packet emanating from the Asian mainland caused two cyclones to develop as it propagated across the ocean. Taken together, Simmons and Hoskins (1979) and Chang and Orlanski (1993) provide a compelling physical mechanism for the formation

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Jamie MacMahan

swell) that occur in the 3456–12 096-cpd frequency band (7–25-s periods) that radiate away from the coast and travel around the ocean basins ( Herbers et al. 1994 , 1995 ; among others). Based on these studies, it is plausible that small-amplitude, free IG waves in the seiche frequency bands are a component of oceanic white noise, and they are what is forcing the seiche in Monterey Bay and likely elsewhere. Though there is agreement on the idea that free IG waves are a component of oceanic white

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Gengxin Chen, Weiqing Han, Yuanlong Li, Michael J. McPhaden, Ju Chen, Weiqiang Wang, and Dongxiao Wang

-pass filtered forcing inside the box. Fig . 2. Mooring-observed daily (a) zonal current u and (b) meridional current υ (m s −1 ) of the upper 400 m at 5°N, 90.5°E from 2 Apr 2013 through 15 Apr 2014. The black line marks the zero velocity contour. The ISV of the equatorial winds over the Indian Ocean has been shown to significantly affect the adjacent areas. Intraseasonal equatorial Kelvin waves driven by winds associated with the MJO can propagate to the eastern Indian Ocean (EIO) boundary and the

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