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Sha Lu, Arnold Heemink, Hai Xiang Lin, Arjo Segers, and Guangliang Fu

.1016/0025-5564(85)90098-7 Kawabata , T. , H. Iwai , H. Seko , Y. Shoji , K. Saito , S. Ishii , and K. Mizutani , 2014 : Cloud-resolving 4D-Var assimilation of Doppler wind lidar data on a meso-gamma-scale convective system . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 142 , 4484 – 4498 , doi: 10.1175/MWR-D-13-00362.1 . 10.1175/MWR-D-13-00362.1 Lahoz , W. , B. Khattatov , and R. Menard , 2010 : Data Assimilation: Making Sense of Observations . 1st ed. Springer-Verlag, 718 pp., doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-74703-1 . 10

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E. B. Rodgers, R. Mack, and A. F. Hasler

and Allen)in black. The mode Tee in these cases is the Tee mostfrequently observed within the eye wall CDO, definedby the circles representing the inner and outer radii 'of the eye wall (28 and 83 km) that was determined F~G. 7. WB-57F aircraft path for 12 September 1979, comparingstereo (S) with lidar (L) measurements superimposed on a GOESvisible image of Frederic at 2120 GMT.subjectively from the stereo observations. Withinthese black areas, bounded by the two circles, themean height of the

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Gerald M. Heymsfield, Richard Fulton, and James D. Spinhirne

emphasis on interpretations from lidar measurements. The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of'unique observations from ER-2 overflights for two Midwest severe weather events both which producedFEBRUARY 1991 HEYMSFIELD, FULTON, AND SPINHIRNE 437IR V features: 1 ) a group of severe thunderstorms inArkansas on 7 May 1984 that later transformed intoa linear mesoscale convective system (MCS), and 2)a severe

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Matthias Schindler, Martin Weissmann, Andreas Schäfler, and Gabor Radnoti

the process ( Simmons and Hollingsworth 2002 ; Bauer et al. 2015 ). While satellite data assimilation is indispensable due to its temporal and spatial data coverage, providing the majority of observations that are assimilated every day, in situ observations of diabatically active regions associated with tropical cyclones (TCs) and midlatitudinal frontal systems are quite limited to a few observations provided by buoys and a scarce observation network of radiosondes and adaptively deployed

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G. Brogniez, J. C. Buriez, V. Giraud, F. Parol, and C. Vanbauce

~propertiesderived from .ground-ba~ed measurements-are compared to those derived from satellite observations.2. Dataa. Ground-based measurements The measurements were acquired at Nordholz(53.8-N, 8.3-E) on 18 October 1989 during ICE'89 ( 18September-20 October 1989) (Raschke et al. 1990).The instruments in use were an aureolemeter, an infrared radiometer, and a lidar. Both the radiometei' and thelidar were" pointing toward the zenith, while the aureolemeter measured the forward-scattered light nearthe sun

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O. Coindreau, F. Hourdin, M. Haeffelin, A. Mathieu, and C. Rio

. Comparison with SIRTA observations To illustrate the performances of the model with the optimum parameterization (b10 + th), a 1-month period, corresponding to the VAPIC intensive observation period, has been more precisely studied. During this period, running from 18 May 2004 to 17 June 2004, observations performed by remote sensing and in situ instruments at the SIRTA observatory (weather station, cloud aerosol lidar, radiosonde measurements, and flux meters) are used to analyze simulated surface

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Stefan Kinne, Thomas P. Ackerman, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Francisco P. J. Valero, Kenneth Sassen, and James D. Spinhirne

atmospheric temperature profile is ~iven by the d~t-hand ordinate.of the FSSP probe measurements taken by the KingAir above 7 km. The ground-based lidar data define the cloud baseat or just above the 6-km altitude. This is consistentwith King Air cockpit VCR observations at 6.1 kmtaken during leg I and after the spiral descent, whensurface features were clearly visible. The uncertaintyin cloud-top height deduced from ground-based lidarMAY 1992 KINNE

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Paul J. Neiman, F. Martin Ralph, Robert L. Weber, Taneil Uttal, Louisa B. Nance, and David H. Levinson

Divide ( Fig. 1 ). Its narrow beamwidth (1.8 m at 20-km range) and lack of sidelobes provided detailed observations (≤300 m spatial and ≤1 min temporal resolutions) of radial velocity and backscatter within its ∼30 km observing radius. Because of the large amount of volcanic aerosol created by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 ( Bernard et al. 1991 ), the lidar measurements extended well into the stratosphere ( Post et al. 1996 ), thus providing a unique opportunity to observe the detailed

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Stanley G. Benjamin, Brian D. Jamison, William R. Moninger, Susan R. Sahm, Barry E. Schwartz, and Thomas W. Schlatter

observation types over both summer and winter experiment periods, and for three fields—wind, temperature, and moisture. Other previous work on effects of high-frequency (hourly) observations on short-range forecasts include those reported by Smith et al. (2007) for GPS precipitable water observations and Weygandt et al. (2004) for simulated lidar wind observations [a regional observing system simulation experiment (OSSE)]. The observation sensitivity experiments reported here were carried out

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Patrick Minnis, Edwin F. Harrison, and Patrick W. Heck

(Sassen et al.1990), however, were probably obscured by cirrusclouds since the satellite retrievals indicate only highclouds at that time. It is not clear from these results whether the uncertainties in the satellite analysis of total cloud heigb4sare due primarily to sampling differences in the satellites and lidars or to partially cloud-filled pixel effects.More detailed logs of visual observations would behelpful in determining when low or midlevel cloudswere in the vicinity of the lidar sites

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