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Olli M. Turpeinen, Louis Garand, Robert Benoit, and Michel Roch

, initially of the order of 9 hours, could be practically eliminated. The forecastprecipitation rates in the frontal zone agreed closely with Nimbus-7 SMMR microwave observations as earlyas 1-2 hours after the initialization.1. Introduction Despite continuous progress during recent years,numerical weather prediction models arc still plaguedby a slowness to forecast appropriate amounts of precipitation-during the first few (12) hours of integration.This is the so-called spin-up problem of

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Shu-Hua Chen, Zhan Zhao, Jennifer S. Haase, Aidong Chen, and Francois Vandenberghe

. B. , and F. J. Wentz , 2005 : Global microwave satellite observations of sea surface temperature for numerical weather prediction and climate research. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 86 , 1097 – 1115 . Chen , S-H. , 2007 : The impact of assimilating SSM/I and QuikSCAT satellite winds on Hurricane Isidore simulations. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 135 , 549 – 566 . Chen , S-H. , and W-Y. Sun , 2002 : A one-dimensional time-dependent cloud model. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan , 80 , 99 – 118

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E. B. Rodgers and R. F. Adler

506 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUM~ 109Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Characteristics as Determined from a Satellite Passive Microwave Radiometer E. B. ROVO-RS AND R. F. ADLER NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771(Manuscript received 8 May 1980, in final form 10 October 1980)ABSTRACT Data from the Nimbus-5 Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR-5) have

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David F. Parrish and John C. Derber

pressure, mixing ratio, and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager(SSM/I) total precipitable water can be used as the observation variables. Soon to be added are the scatterometersurface winds. This paper provides a detailed description of the SSI and presents a few results.1. Introduction ~ Most of the major operational NWP centers assimilate observations into forecast models using some formof statistical or optimum interpolation (OI). Thesesystems are based on the ideas of Gandin (1963) andEliassen (1954

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F. Martin Ralph, Paul J. Neiman, and Gary A. Wick

Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) also furnished observations. A Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) was carried on three Defense Meteorological Satellite Program polar orbiters ( F11, F13, F14 ) that circled the globe once every ∼102 min. Tropospheric integrated water vapor (IWV) ( Schluessel and Emery 1990 ), cloud liquid water (CLW) ( Weng and Grody 1994 ), rain rate (RR) ( Ferriday and Avery 1994 ), and ocean-surface wind speed (SPD) ( Goodberlet et al. 1990 ) were

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Udai Shimada, Masahiro Sawada, and Hiroyuki Yamada

; Olander et al. 2004 ; Olander and Velden 2007 ), satellite microwave sounding data ( Brueske and Velden 2003 ; Herndon and Velden 2004 ; Demuth et al. 2004 ; Oyama 2014 ), or satellite microwave imager data ( Bankert and Tag 2002 ; Hoshino and Nakazawa 2007 ; Sakuragi et al. 2014 ). The Dvorak technique is an empirical method based on past reconnaissance observations and the subjective classification of cloud patterns, although the advanced Dvorak technique is a fully automated method ( Olander

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Vance Moyer, James R. Scoggins, Nine-Min Chou, and Gregory S. Wilson

HighResolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) and Scanning Microwave Spectrometer (SCAMS) radiancesare assessed by comparison with similar dat~ from weighted means of the rawinsonde observations (raobs)that bracketed the time of the satellite orbit across the east central United States for a case study on 25August 1975. With notable exceptions, the HIRS-SCAMS temperature profiles are fairly good approximations of the weighted-mean raob profiles; those exceptions occur near the surface and near the

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Edward B. Rodgers, William S. Olson, V. Mohan Karyampudi, and Harold F. Pierce

1. Introduction It was demonstrated by Rodgers and Pierce (1995) that the evolution of Typhoon Bobbie’s large-scale convective rainband (CRB) cycles ( Willoughby et al. 1982 ; Willoughby 1988 , 1990 ) during its mature and decaying stages could be resolved with the aid of both the F-10 and F-11 Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data. The study suggested that the increased precipitation in the inertially stable inner

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Manuel Lonfat, Frank D. Marks Jr., and Shuyi S. Chen

a function of the storm intensity, location, and speed. Most instantaneous observations capture only part of the storm, because 1) the passive microwave swath width is smaller than the size of most storms, and 2) the storm eye and satellite nadir are rarely superimposed. Figure 3 shows the data coverage as a function of radial distance from the TC center, normalized to the maximum possible coverage at all radial distances. The coverage distribution in Fig. 3 is obtained by summing the area

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Shu-Hsien Chou, Robert M. Atlas, Chung-Lin Shie, and Joe Ardizzone

. Sun, 1993: An analysis of errors in Special Sensor Microwave lmager evaporation esti mates over the global oceans. J. Geophys. Res., 98(c4), 7081 Francey, R. J., and J. R. Garratt, 1981: Inteq~retation of flux-profile observations at ITCE (1976). J. Appl. Meteor., 20, 603 618.Giese, B. S., and D. E. Hm'rison, 1991: Eastern equatorial Pacific response to three composite westerly wind types. J. Geophys. Res., 96(Suppl:), 3239-3248.Halpem, D., W. Knauss, O. Brown, M. Freilich, and F. Wentz

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