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Y. Orsolini and P. Simon

VOL. 52, NO. 22 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES 15NOVEMBER 1995Idealized Life Cycles of Planetary-Scale Barotropic Waves in ~he Middle Atmosphere Y. ORSOLINI AND P. SIMONMdtdo-France, Centre National de Recherches Mdtdorologiques, Toulouse, France(Manuscript received 3 November 1993, in final form 10 March 1994)ABSTRACT A nonlinear nondivergent barotropic model is used to

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L. Coy, I. Štajner, A. M. DaSilva, J. Joiner, R. B. Rood, S. Pawson, and S. J. Lin

1. Introduction The 4-day wave is a relatively common planetary-scale stratopause disturbance found mainly during the Southern Hemisphere winter. This high-latitude wave consists of wavenumber-1 (wave 1) and wavenumber-2 (wave 2) (and some higher wavenumber) components moving at nearly the same rotational period (the time for a crest to travel around a latitude circle), about 3–4 days, so that the period of the wave-2 component is about 1.5–2 days. Many studies of the 4-day wave have focused on

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James E. Hansen

~400 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES Vo~.u~E28Multiple Scattering of Polarized Light in Planetary Atmospheres.Part II. Sunlight Reflected by Terrestrial Water Clouds JAMES E. HANSENGoddard Institute for Space Studies, NASA, New York, N. Y.(Manuscript received 3 August 1971, in revised form 23 August 1971) The intensity and polarization of sunlight reflected by terrestrial water

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C. McLandress and N. A. McFarlane

1966 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 50, No. 13Interactions between Orographic Gravity Wave Drag and Forced Stationary Planetary Waves in the Winter Northern Hemisphere Middle Atmosphere C. Mc LANDRESSInstitute for Space and Terrestrial Science, North York, Ontario, Canada N. A. MCFARLANECanadian Climate Centre, Downsview, Ontario, Canada(Manuscript received 2 December

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W. E. Meador and W. R. Weaver

630 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOLUME 37Two-Stream Approximations to Radiative Transfer in Planetary Atmospheres: A Unified Description of Existing Methods and a New Improvement W. E. MEADOR AND W. R. WEAVERNASA, Langley Reseacch Center, Harnplon. VA 23665 (Manuscript received 15 October 1979) ABSTRACTExisting two-stream approximations to radiative transfer theory for particulate media are shown to berepresented by identical forms of coupled differential

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Graeme L. Stephens, Martin Wild, Paul W. Stackhouse Jr., Tristan L’Ecuyer, Seiji Kato, and David S. Henderson

1. Introduction It has been understood for some time that changes to the strength of the greenhouse effect are fundamental to our understanding of the climate of earth and how it can change ( Arrenhius 1896 ; Callendar 1938 ; Kasting 1989 ). Increases in greenhouse gases like CO 2 induce a warming of the surface and lower atmosphere. The increase in water vapor that follows a warming results in a further strengthening of the greenhouse effect by increased emission of radiation from the

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William J. Randel, Fei Wu, and Piers Forster

. Leovy , 1987 : Middle Atmosphere Dynamics. Academic Press, 489 pp . Birner , T. , 2006 : Fine-scale structure of the extratropical tropopause region. J. Geophys. Res. , 111 . D04104, doi:10.1029/2005JD006301 . Birner , T. , A. Dörnbrack , and U. Schumann , 2002 : How sharp is the tropopause at midlatitudes? Geophys. Res. Lett. , 29 . 1700, doi:10.1029/2002GL015142 . Forster , P. M. , and K. P. Shine , 2002 : Assessing the climate impact of trends in stratospheric water

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Tatsuya Yamashita, Masatsugu Odaka, Ko-ichiro Sugiyama, Kensuke Nakajima, Masaki Ishiwatari, Seiya Nishizawa, Yoshiyuki O. Takahashi, and Yoshi-Yuki Hayashi

1. Introduction In the Martian atmosphere, the major constituent, CO 2 , condenses, in contrast to Earth’s atmosphere where a minor constituent, H 2 O, does. Investigation of possible structures of circulation fields and properties of clouds in such an atmosphere, especially a dense CO 2 atmosphere, is not only interesting as a problem of fluid mechanics, but also as an important target of research on the early Mars, where the scattering greenhouse effect of CO 2 ice cloud could have played

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Xin Qu and Alex Hall

1. Introduction Using an energy balance climate model, Budyko (1969) and Sellers (1969) hypothesized that if incoming solar energy and the transparency of the atmosphere to terrestrial radiation are prescribed, the earth’s surface temperature is largely controlled by planetary albedo. The connection of planetary albedo to the thermal state of the surface motivated the climate community to measure this quantity. Numerous estimates have led to a consensus that on a global-mean, annual

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Aaron Donohoe and David S. Battisti

1. Introduction The ratio of reflected to incident shortwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), the earth’s planetary albedo, is a function of climate state and exerts a profound influence on the earth’s climate. As a reference point, Budyko (1969) postulated that a change in global average planetary albedo of less than 0.02 units could cause global glaciation of the climate system. The radiative forcing associated with a doubling of carbon dioxide above the preindustrial

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