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Luigi Cavaleri

about our hopeful idea that, adding the single descriptions of the various processes at work, this would be enough to create a proper hindcasting–forecasting machine. As discussed in the previous section, clearly the experience indicates this is not the case. To start with, the sea on which we propagate our waves is not uniform and undisturbed. Rather, the oceans are characterized by currents that interact with the wave field. Most of the currents we find in the sea are not strong enough to affect

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J. R. Carpenter, A. Guha, and E. Heifetz

(1957) . Recent observational evidence of the presence of a critical layer in the airflow above ocean waves has also been found by Hristov et al. (2003) and Grare et al. (2013) . In addition, controlled laboratory experiments by Buckley and Veron (2016) demonstrate the presence of a critical layer, despite the presence of a highly turbulent airflow, in agreement with the predictions of Miles’ theory. In all of these observations, the critical layer only emerges once significant phase averaging

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Gengxin Chen, Weiqing Han, Xiaolin Zhang, Linlin Liang, Huijie Xue, Ke Huang, Yunkai He, Jian Li, and Dongxiao Wang

> 107.5°E, 7.5°S < y < 7.5°N, and it relaxes the zonal-velocity and pressure fields of each mode to zero there ( Han et al. 1999 ). The damper efficiently absorbs the energy of incoming equatorial Kelvin waves, and thus no Rossby waves are reflected back into the ocean interior from the eastern boundary. While LOM_DAMP primarily measures the effects of directly forced Kelvin and Rossby waves, the solution difference LOM_Reflect (LOM_MR − LOM_DAMP) isolates the reflected Rossby wave effects ( Chen

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Greg Holloway

MARCH 1982 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 293NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCEOn Interaction Time Scales of Oceanic Internal Waves GREG HOLLOWAYtDepartment of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle 981958 July 1981 and 17 November 1981ABSTRACT When applied to oceanic internal waves of observed amplitudes, a class.of weak wave-wave interactiontheories predict certain very rapid

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Angélique Melet, Robert Hallberg, Sonya Legg, and Maxim Nikurashin

1. Introduction The breaking of internal waves represents the main source of diapycnal mixing in the ocean interior ( Garrett and Kunze 2007 ). Diapycnal mixing in turn plays a key role in maintaining the ocean stratification and the meridional overturning circulation (MOC): the convective creation of dense surface water that occurs in a few locations of the global ocean (e.g., Southern Ocean, Nordic seas, and Labrador Sea) is balanced by the upwelling of deep water driven by both turbulent

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Franz Philip Tuchen, Peter Brandt, Martin Claus, and Rebecca Hummels

equatorial and off-equatorial Rossby waves at the western boundary ( Polo et al. 2008 ). TIWs appear to zonally propagate near the surface and are often described as quasi-monthly fluctuations of sea surface temperature (SST) or sea surface height anomalies being common to all tropical oceans ( Steger and Carton 1991 ). Atlantic TIWs are generally characterized by periods of 20–60 days, zonal wavelengths of 600–1200 km, and westward phase speeds of 20–60 cm s −1 (e.g., Weisberg and Weingartner 1988

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Jan Erik Weber

1. Introduction It has been known for a long time that surface water waves carry mean momentum ( Stokes 1847 ). For monochromatic waves in a viscous nonrotating fluid, the pioneering paper is that of Longuet-Higgins (1953) . For a direct Lagrangian approach to wave drift in a rotating ocean, earlier treatments of this problem are found in papers such as those of Chang (1969) , Ünlüata and Mei (1970) , and Weber (1983a , b ). Also the generalized Lagrangian-mean formulation of Andrews and

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T. H. C. Herbers and T. T. Janssen

1. Introduction The nonlinearity of ocean surface waves affects the geometrical properties of the sea surface and is important for understanding wave-induced transport and drift characteristics. Second-order nonlinear effects include the familiar enhanced steepness of wave crests ( Stokes 1847 ) and mean water level variations on the scale of wave groups ( Longuet-Higgins and Stewart 1962 ). The associated deviations from Gaussian sea surface statistics and variations in the wave

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Nirnimesh Kumar and Falk Feddersen

-shelf exchange. In contrast, the coupled ocean circulation and wave propagation model Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere–Wave–Sediment Transport (COAWST) include Stokes drift, Coriolis, and the vertically varying circulation and stratification (e.g., Kumar et al. 2012 ). However, the wave-averaged COAWST does not include the finite-crest-length, wave-breaking, surfzone, eddy generation mechanism. Unlike other 3D nearshore models ( Reniers et al. 2009 ), COAWST also does not include wave group forcing, which could

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Robert Pinkel

packet. It is now appreciated that much of the shear in the ocean is associated with near-inertial waves, rather than mesoscale motions. The “background shear” often propagates more rapidly than the vertical group velocity of smaller internal waves ( Broutman 1984 ). With shears that vary in both space and time, there is no reference frame in which all waves are seen to fluctuate sinusoidally. Changes in observed wave frequency σ , intrinsic wave frequency ω , and energy are typically linked in a

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