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Fuzhong Weng and Quanhua Liu

models although the measurements contain rich information on various weather processes. In the next decade when many advanced microwave and infrared sensors are deployed in space and their sensitivity to various atmospheric and surface parameters are further improved, the uses of cloudy radiances in NWP models will ultimately augment the impacts that have already been demonstrated through the clear radiance assimilation. Currently, the advanced radiative transfer models including scattering and

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Bruce Albrecht, Ming Fang, and Virendra Ghate

) mean Doppler velocity, and (c) Doppler spectrum width recorded by the millimeter-wave cloud radar, and (d) liquid water path from the microwave radiometer. The ceilometer-recorded cloud-base height (black) and the lifting condensation level calculated from surface observations (red) are also shown in (a). This case was selected for previous studies ( F14A , F14B ; Zhu et al. 2010 ) because of the range of turbulence forcing due to variability in the surface buoyancy fluxes and the documented

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Robert F. Cahalan, David Silberstein, and Jack B. Snider

current study focuses on the continuous timeobservations made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) microwave radiometer on Porto Santo Island. Porto Santo Island(33. I-N, 16.3-W) is in the Madeira Island region. Thisis about 900 km southeast of the Azores and 500 kmnorth of the Canary Islands. Variations in W inferredby these observations are caused both by the advectionof cloud spatial structures across the observing site andby the temporal evolution of these cloud fields

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Mengistu Wolde and Gabor Vali

. Arnold, and H. H. Hoffman, 1978: Depolarization of 19 and 28 GHz earth–space signals by ice particles. Radio Sci., 13, 511–517. Doviak, R. J., and D. S. Zrnić, 1993: Doppler Radar and Weather Observations. Academic Press, 562 pp. Evans, K., and J. Vivekanandan, 1990: Multiparameter radar and microwave radiative transfer modeling of nonspherical atmospheric ice particles. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 28, 423–437. Fabry, F., and W. Szyrmer, 1999: Modeling of the melting layer. Part

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Zhuo Wang and Isaac Hankes

, 2009 : Composite life cycle of maritime tropical mesoscale convective systems in scatterometer and microwave satellite observations . J. Atmos. Sci. , 66 , 199 – 208 , doi: 10.1175/2008JAS2746.1 . Masunaga , H. , 2012 : Short-term versus climatological relationship between precipitation and tropospheric humidity . J. Climate , 25 , 7983 – 7990 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00037.1 . Montgomery , M. T. , and R. K. Smith , 2010 : Tropical-cyclone formation: Theory and idealized modelling

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Paul E. Sherr

494JOIJRNAL OF METEOROLOGYVOLUME 18SOME AIRBORNE REFRACTIVE-INDEX MEASUREMENTS AT 150 MB Paul E. SherrThe Bendix Corporation, Ann Arbor, Michigan(Manuscript received 22 August 1960)ABSTRACTIndex of refraction data measured by a Crain microwave refractometer mounted in a Boeing 707 jetaircraft on two flights during August 1959 are presented. Emphasis is placed on the horizontal portions ofthe flights at the 150" level, but climbout and descent data are also given. Comparisons are made

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K. Franklin Evans and Graeme L. Stephens

community with passive measurements at 19, 22, 37, and 85 GHz from the SpecialSensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) (Hollinger et al.1990). A significant body of research has recently reported on a number of methods for deriving propertiesof water vapor, liquid water clouds, and rainfall fromthese observations (e.g., Alishouse et al. 1990; Tjemkes et al. 1991; Liu and Curry 1993; Greenwald et al.1993; Wilheit and Chang 1991; Kummerow and Giglio1994; Wilheit et al. 1994). For many applications, scattering

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Kathleen A. Schiro, J. David Neelin, David K. Adams, and Benjamin R. Lintner

inherent uncertainties at high rain rates, particularly in the satellite observations where precipitation is inferred from cloud liquid water. Comparing the 15-min averages from the GOAmazon site to microwave retrievals over the tropical oceans (effectively snapshots) may also play a role. Figures 1b and 1e illustrate an equally sharp increase in probability of precipitation as a function of CWV comparable to that shown for conditionally averaged rain rate in Figs. 1a and 1d , respectively. The

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Catherine Heyraud, Wanda Szyrmer, Stéphane Laroche, and Isztar Zawadzki

1. Introduction A better understanding and representation of the melting layer is relevant to many remote sensing applications. From the perspective of space-borne sensors, the melting layer has an impact on observations as a source of error in microwave rainfall retrievals in stratiform regions ( Olson et al. 2001a , b ). To remove its impact on the upwelling radiances and effective radar reflectivities, it appears necessary that the melting layer be well represented in the modeling. Sassen

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Qingyuan Han, William B. Rossow, Jian Zeng, and Ronald Welch

aerosols. Nature , 370 , 450 – 453 . Lacis , A. A. , and V. Oinas , 1991 : A description of the correlated k-distribution method for modeling non-grey gaseous absorption, thermal emission, and multiple scattering in vertically inhomogeneous atmospheres. J. Geophys. Res , 96 , 9027 – 9063 . Lin , B. , and W. B. Rossow , 1994 : Observations of cloud liquid water path over oceans: Optical and microwave remote sensing methods. J. Geophys. Res , 99 , 20907 – 20927 . Lin , B. , and

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