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Christopher L. Wolfe, Paola Cessi, and Bruce D. Cornuelle

described in section 2 . We argue in section 3 that the dominant mode of variability is organized into at least two beams of baroclinic Rossby waves with a 4-yr period, propagating westward across the south Indian Ocean and into the Atlantic Ocean. The mechanism responsible for these Rossby waves—radiating baroclinic instability of the LC—is identified in section 4 and illustrated using a 2.5-layer quasigeostrophic model. The implications for oceanic predictability as well as a survey of evidence

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W. Perrie and B. Toulany

total energy E ∗ c o can be parameterized by a fetch-law relation in terms of inverse wave age U ∗ c / C p , E ∗ c o = ϵ ( U ∗ c / C p ) γ , (4) where γ and ϵ are appropriate constants. Equation (4) is important because it relates total energy E ∗ c o and inverse wave age U ∗ c / C p . These are open ocean variables specifying spectral maturity. Fetch relations such as Eq. (4) obtained correlation coefficients as high as 0.99 with respect to the CASP data ( Perrie and Toulany 1990

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Eric Danioux and Patrice Klein

, 2224 – 2241 . Gill , A. E. , 1982 : Atmosphere–Ocean Dynamics . Academic Press, 662 pp . Hibiya , T. , Y. Niwa , and K. Fujiwara , 1998 : Numerical experiments of nonlinear energy transfer within the oceanic internal wave spectrum. J. Geophys. Res. , 103 , 18715 – 18722 . Klein , P. , and A. Tréguier , 1995a : Comments on “Scattering of inertial waves by an ocean front”. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 25 , 1018 – 1022 . Klein , P. , and A. M. Tréguier , 1995b : Dispersion of

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Robert Pinkel

100 m. The red reference line gives the Poisson model prediction while the black lines give Poisson microscale model results ( Part I , appendix C). A single value of κ 0 well represents all observations at the Farfield open-ocean site. In the Nearfield, as well as at other sites with vertically inhomogeneous wave activity, κ 0 varies. Structure functions for all cruises are presented in appendix A . Estimates of the structure functions ( Figs. 1a and 1b ) are generally consistent with the

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Carl Wunsch and Spahr Webb

VOLUME9 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY MARCH 1979The Climatology of Deep Ocean Internal Waves CARL WUNSCH AND SPAHR WEBBDepartment of Earth & Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139(Manuscript received 21 July 1978, in final form 25 September 1978)ABSTRACT The search for regions of the deep ocean where the canonical

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Gregory P. Gerbi, Robert J. Chant, and John L. Wilkin

and implemented that attempt to parameterize the effects of whitecapping surface gravity waves on upper-ocean turbulence ( Craig and Banner 1994 ; Burchard 2001 ; Carniel et al. 2009 ). Because these parameterizations are relatively new, limited descriptions of their dynamical effects on regional circulation have been developed ( Carniel et al. 2009 ; Zhang et al. 2011 ). In this study, we examine buoyant plumes under upwelling-favorable winds. Using a numerical model, we study how the

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James C. McWilliams, Edward Huckle, Jun-Hong Liang, and Peter P. Sullivan

” ( Skyllingstad and Denbo 1995 ; McWilliams et al. 1997 ; plus many subsequent studies reviewed in Sullivan and McWilliams 2010 ). Furthermore, especially for high winds and waves, the momentum transmission from atmospheric winds to oceanic currents by surface drag occurs primarily through isolated impulses associated with wind-generated surface waves when they break and penetrate into the ocean, rather than through a uniform τ at the surface; this is represented in a stochastic breaker model ( Sullivan

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Robert Pinkel

internal waves leads to much of the irregular structure in the deep open ocean. Small-amplitude waves have sinusoidal waveforms in space and in time. A linear superposition of independent waves leads to Gaussian wavefield statistics. However, the oceanic internal wave field is sufficiently energetic that the vertical waveform of shorter, slower-moving waves becomes distorted at depths where vertical propagation speed is inhibited by variations of density gradient or horizontal current. Just as ocean

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Tetsu Hara and Andrey V. Karachintsev

1. Introduction Ocean surface wave fields are commonly characterized by wave elevation frequency spectra or directional wave elevation frequency spectra. A basic assumption behind such spectral representation is that the ocean surface wave field is a superposition of linear surface wave components of different frequencies. Frequency spectra are often converted to wavenumber spectra using an assumption that each spectral component propagates independently at its own phase speed predicted by the

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Martin Claus, Richard J. Greatbatch, Peter Brandt, and John M. Toole

waves that have the same properties as the observed EDJs in the Atlantic Ocean? Our analysis is based on moored, long-term, near-full-depth observations of zonal velocity on the equator at 23°W. These observations are used to extract the EDJ signal expressed in terms of vertical normal modes. Furthermore, the linearity of the phenomenon, expressed by the close correspondence of the EDJs to the gravest linear equatorial basin mode, is exploited to obtain amplitude and phase information for each

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