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I-I. Lin, Chun-Chieh Wu, Kerry A. Emanuel, I-Huan Lee, Chau-Ron Wu, and Iam-Fei Pun

Topography Experiment for Ocean Circulation (TOPEX)/Poseidon and Jason-1 missions ( Fu et al. 1994 ) and the cloud-penetrating sea surface temperature data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) ( Wentz et al. 2000 ). Besides traditional observations and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) model analyses, satellite SSHA and sea surface temperature data are also used as inputs to the CHIPS model, while the NPACNFS model is used to provide the upper

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Hung-Chi Kuo, Wayne H. Schubert, Chia-Ling Tsai, and Yu-Fen Kuo

≥ 4). To summarize, the regime diagrams presented in this section indicate that a Rankine vortex favors the formation of a concentric structure closer to the core vortex, while skirted vortices promote the formation of concentric structures farther from the core vortex. Thus, it is conceivable that a core vortex of sufficient strength can form a concentric vorticity structure at large radius through binary vortex interaction. This is consistent with satellite microwave observations that suggest a

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David B. Parsons, Melvyn A. Shapiro, and Erik Miller

sloping terrain and vertical shear resulting in regional circulations that are clearly frontogenetic for water vapor. The original inland sea-breeze hypothesis proposed that weak vertical motions take place mainly on broad horizontal scales of ∼100 km, although Sun and Ogura (1979) noted that vertical motions at the dryline could be strongly underestimated through aliasing of the finescale gradients onto a large-scale grid. More recent high-resolution observations have indeed revealed that intense

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Sara Q. Zhang, T. Matsui, S. Cheung, M. Zupanski, and C. Peters-Lidard

with satellite observations and physical constraints of the underlying processes, with fully realized dynamic interaction and feedback through explicit microphysics and mesoscale dynamics. Using an advanced ensemble data assimilation system developed for the NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecasting (NU-WRF; Peters-Lidard et al. 2015 ) Model, precipitation-sensitive microwave radiances are directly assimilated into a storm-scale NU-WRF simulation of the WAM. Assimilation of precipitation

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Ying-Hwa Kuo, David O. Gill, and Linsheng Cheng

3146 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUM~II5Retrieving Temperature and Geopotential Fieldsfrom a Network of Wind Profiler Observations YINCr-HWA KUONational Center for Atmospheric Research,* Boulder, CO 80307 DAVID O. GILL AND LINSHENG CHENG**Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of ColoradofiVOAA/WPL, Boulder, CO 80309

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Haiyan Jiang

of TC intensification, and in particular, RI, are still controversial. Precipitation in the inner-core region is closely related to the latent heat release and the internal process of the development of a storm. Rao and MacArthur (1994) found that rain rates averaged in the 2.0° radius box were highly correlated with 24-h future typhoon intensity. Cecil and Zipser (1999) examined TCs in the Atlantic, eastern North Pacific, and western North Pacific observed by the Special Sensor Microwave

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Rong-Hua Zhang and Antonio J. Busalacchi

SST specification on ECMWF surface wind stress fields in the eastern tropical Pacific. J. Climate , 18 , 530 – 550 . Chelton , D. B. , and M. H. Freilich , 2005 : Scatterometer-based assessment of 10-m wind analyses from the operational ECMWF and NCEP numerical weather prediction models. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 133 , 409 – 429 . Chelton , D. B. , F. J. Wentz , C. L. Gentemann , R. A. de Szoeke , and M. G. Schlax , 2000 : Microwave SST observations of transequatorial tropical

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Yi-Ting Yang, Eric A. Hendricks, Hung-Chi Kuo, and Melinda S. Peng

showed that Hurricanes Anita, David, and Andrew formed CE structures, and documented the ERC occurrence and subsequent weakening using aircraft observations. The ERC time scale in numerical models such as Terwey and Montgomery (2008) , Qiu et al. (2010) , Zhou and Wang (2009) , and Ortt and Chen (2008) are in the range of 6–18 h. The radar observations of Typhoon Lekima ( Kuo et al. 2004 ) and the aircraft observation of Hurricane Andrew (1992) ( Willoughby and Black 1996 ) both indicated that

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Thomas M. Hamill, Fanglin Yang, Carla Cardinali, and Sharanya J. Majumdar

1. Introduction Since the mid-1990s, supplementary “targeted” atmospheric observations have been deployed in relative data voids in the extratropics, such as the open ocean under cloud shields. The additional data were collected in an attempt to improve the operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) of potential high-impact weather events through assimilation of these extra data. The most extensive use of targeted observations in the extratropics has been through the annual National Oceanic

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E. G. Njoku and L. Swanson

, (2)where Ts is the sea surface temperature, and e theemissivity. The emissivity depends upon sea surfacetemperature, wind speed (via roughening of the surfaceand foam generation) and on sensor parameters (frequency, polarization and viewing angle). When measured from space, the ocean brightness temperature ismodified by transmission through the atmosphere,whose primary variables of importance to surface microwave observations are water vapor, cloud liquidwater and rainfall. In order to determine

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