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Robert W. Bergstrom and James T. Peterson

L. D. Travis, 1974: Light scattering in plane-tary atmospheres. Space Sci. Rev., 16, 527-610.Houghton, H. G., 1954: On the heat balance of the NorthernHemisphere. J. Meteor., 11, 1-9.Idso, S. B., 1970: The transmittance of the atmosphere for solarradiation on individual clear day. J. Appl. Meteor., 9,239-241.Irvine, W. M., 1975: Multiple scattering in planetary atmo-spheres. Icarus, 25, 175-204.Junge, C. E., 1972: Our knowledge of the physico-chemistry of aerosols in the undisturbed maritime

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Claude Estournel, Raoul Vehil, Daniel Guedalia, Jacques Fontan, and Aimé Druilhet

Terrestria! Radiation. AcademicPress, 322 pp.Deirmendjian, D., 1969: E!ectromagnetic Scattering on Spherica!Po!ydispersions. Elsevier, 290 pp.Golubitskiy, B. M., and N. I. Moskalenko, I 968~ Spectral trans.mission functions in the H,O and CO2 bands. Izv. Acad. Sci.USSR, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., 4, 194-203.Goody, R. M., 1964: Atmospheric Radiation. Oxford UniversityPress, 436 pp.Green, A. S., C. S. Lindenmeyer and M. Grigga, 1963: Molecularabsorption in planetary atmospheres. Rep. No. 00A63-0204,Space Science

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Haruyasu Nagai

Introduction The heat and water exchanges between the atmosphere and the ground surface are important processes for environmental studies. Heat energy and water supplied to the ground surface as solar and longwave radiation and precipitation are redistributed to the ground and the atmosphere through the ground-surface processes, becoming the driving force of atmospheric phenomena. Thus, the processes of heat and water exchanges at the ground surface play an important role in determining the

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M. Segal, Y. Mahrer, and R. A. Pielke

applied to simulatetypical July conditions over that region. A similartype of simulation was previously performed byAnthes and Warner (1978). Their study provided thefirst modelling insight into the terrain-induced flowswithin the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over thisregion. However, that study did not simulate the prevalent synoptic flow over the region, nor was it oriented toward resolving the surface climatological patterns. In the current study, predicted surface flowpatterns have been compared

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C. Prabhakara, David A. Short, and Bruce E. Vollmer

three year monthly mean, in the water vapor distribution over the oceansduring the 1982-83 El Nifio event lead us to infer significant changes in the circulation of the lower layers ofthe atmosphere at that time. The intense phase oftbe El Nifio is accompanied by well-organized subsidence tothe west, north, and south of the convectively active zone that is over the near-equatorial regions of the centralPacific. As the convective zone intensifies and moves eastward the associated subsidence

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Ariel F. Stein and John C. Wyngaard

) shows that the larger the variability is in a signal f ( t ), the larger its integral scale is or the smaller the averaging time is, the lower the accuracy is of using f T as an estimate of the ensemble mean f . Let us consider two sets of geometrically similar experiments carried out under the same stability conditions in the laboratory (lab) and in the atmosphere (atm). Let us define ε = [( f T − f ) 2 ] 1/2 / f as the inherent uncertainty, so that from (6) with f = c̃, The ratio of

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Patrick T. Gannon Sr.

model. J. appl. Meteor., 1, 127-136.Panofsky, H. A., 1946: Methods of computing vertical motion in the atmosphere. J. Meteor., 3, 45-49.A Relationship between the Mean Monthly Height of the 700-mb Surface andthe Long Wave Flux Density Leaving the Earth at a Maritime LocationP^T~cx T. G^N~os, S~., lsr Lr., USAFDetachment 42, 8th Weather Group, Kansas City, Mo.19 March 1962 and 10 August 1962 Since the launching of the five TIROS meteorologicalsatellites, certain consistent relationships have

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S. H. Melfi, J. D. Spinhirne, S-H. Chou, and S. P. Palm

structure of the PBL with high vertical andhorizontal resolution. Parameters important for PBL modeling such as entrainment zone thickness, entrainmentrate, PBL height and relative heat flux can be inferred from the lidar data. It is suggested that wind shear at thePBL top may influence both entrainment and convective cell size.1. Introduction The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is the importantlink between the earth's surface and the free atmosphere. Momentum, heat and moisture from the surface must

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André Robert

of the primitive meteorological equations. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan., 44, 237-245. , 1968: Integration of a spectral barotropic model fromglobal 500 mb charts. Mon. Wea. Rev., 96, 83-85.Silberman, I., 1954: Planetary waves in the atmosphere. J. Meteor., 11, 27-34.

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Bruce A. Egan and James R. Mahoney

-861.Sasamori, T., 1970: A numerical study of atmospheric and soil boundary layers. J. Atmos. Sci., 27, 1122-1137.Swinbank, W. C., 1964: The exponential wind profile. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 84, 119-135.Taylor, P. A., 1969: On the planetary boundary layer flow under conditions of neutral thermal stability. J. Atmos. Sci., 26, 427-431.Tennekes, H., 1970: Free convection in the turbulent Ekman layer of the atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 27, 1027-1034.Webb, E. K., 1970: Profile relationships: The

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