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W. Viezee, P. A. Davis, and D. E. Wolf

current availability, from the Nimbus 5 andNimbus 6 satellites, of multispectral microwave radiometer data that are related to precipitation, totalliquid water, total water vapor and atmospheric vertical temperature structure, and the abundance of0027-0644/78/1627-1633505.00c 1978 American Meteorological Societysuch data that will be forthcoming from NimbusG and TIROS-N, raises the question whether or notsatellite microwave observations, when combinedwith selected spectral infrared data, can be

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Masahiro Kazumori

1. Introduction Satellite radiance data are currently assimilated in many operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) centers primarily using the variational data assimilation approach ( Derber and Wu 1998 ; Andersson et al. 1994 ). The radiance data are one of the most important observations for global forecast performance, especially over areas where conventional observations are limited (e.g., the Southern Hemisphere). Theoretically, direct radiance assimilation is superior to retrieval

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Lynn A. McMurdie and Krishna B. Katsaros

584 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 113Atmospheric Water Distribution in a Midlatitude Cyclone Observed bythe Seasat Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer'LYNN A. MCMURDIE AND KRISTINA B. KATSAROSDepartment of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington. Seattle, WA 98195(Manuscript received 11 June 1984, in final form 28 December 1984)ABSTRACT Patterns in the horizontal distribution of

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Hyojin Han, Jun Li, Mitch Goldberg, Pei Wang, Jinlong Li, Zhenglong Li, B.-J. Sohn, and Juan Li

in NWP models; they are important measurement sources for improving weather forecasts. However, microwave sounders cannot penetrate precipitating and ice clouds, which need to be screened before use as input. It is, therefore, important to accurately detect if the microwave radiance is affected by clouds or not. Such cloud detection will reduce the cloud contamination from these kinds of observations in the data assimilation process. The direct assimilation of cloudy radiances is still

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Kurt F. Brueske and Christopher S. Velden

1. Introduction The 2001 Northern Hemisphere hurricane season marked the third year of passive microwave warm core observations using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's K, L, and M satellite series (NOAA-KLM) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU). Over the past two decades, several authors ( Kidder et al. 1978 , 2000 ; Velden et al. 1991 ; Spencer and Braswell 2001 ) have documented the virtues of monitoring tropical cyclone (TC) intensity using satellite-borne passive

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Stanley Q. Kidder, William M. Gray, and Thomas H. Vonder Haar

1458 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 106Estimating Tropical Cyclone Central Pressure and Outer Winds from Satellite Microwave DataSTANLEY Q. KI~)DER, WILLIAM M. GRAY AND THOMAS H. VONDER HAARDepartment of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80523(Manuscript received 24 April 1978, in final form 10 luly 1978)ABSTRACT A technique is proposed for estimating tropical

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Peter Bauer, Gábor Radnóti, Sean Healy, and Carla Cardinali

monitored. Table 1. Satellite radiance observing system used at ECMWF (status March 2009, monitored instruments in italic). Over the next 10 years, we do not expect an increase of available observations since several aging satellites are expected to become decomissioned. A basic estimate of availability is one sounder system [High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS), Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS), and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding

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Maziar Bani Shahabadi, Mark Buehner, Josep Aparicio, and Louis Garand

attempt to perform slant-path radiative transfer at Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC), Shahabadi et al. (2018 , hereafter BS18 ) used coarse-resolution background horizontal gradients, offline, to approximate the model’s local variability, and to construct slant profiles for the assimilation of radiance observations. For the simulation of Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) channel 9 radiances, sensitive to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, they showed up to 6

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P. L. Houtekamer, Herschel L. Mitchell, Gérard Pellerin, Mark Buehner, Martin Charron, Lubos Spacek, and Bjarne Hansen

observation type. For example, radiosonde profiles are subject to hydrostatic, lapse rate, and wind shear checks; aircraft reports are sorted by aircraft identifier and then quality controlled one aircraft at a time; while level-1b microwave radiances from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instruments are subject to a three-step bias-correction procedure. All observations are also subject to a “background check” that verifies that each observation is reasonably close to the available

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Yasu-Masa Kodama and Takuya Yamada

application. Microwave observations at 85 GHz can also detect eyewalls (e.g., Cecil and Zipser 1999 ). The 85-GHz TBB highlights ice meteors in upper-tropospheric clouds, whereas PR observations yield the vertical cloud structure throughout the troposphere. Detailed examination of the merits and shortcomings of practical applications of PR and 85-GHz microwave observations are left to future studies. Acknowledgments TRMM 2A25 and 1B01 products were provided by NASA and JAXA. Best track data were provided

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