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R. Avissar and Y. Mahrer

and cold protection. Tech nical Note No. 157, WMO, 160 p.Blackadar, A. IC, 1962: The vertical distribution of wind and turbulent exchange in a neutral atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 67, 3095 3102.-- 1979: High resolution models of the planetary boundary layer. Advances in Environmental and Scientific Engineering, Vol. 1, Gordon and Breach, pp. 50-85.Blanc, M. L., H. Geslin, I. A. Holzberg and B. Mason, 1963: Pro tection against frost damage. WMO Techn. Note No. 51, 62 p.Bootsma, A

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A. Druilhet, J. P. Frangi, D. Guedalia, and J. Fontan

temperature and humidity,dissipative and spectral characteristics and length scales. All these quantities are normalized using the convective similarity hypothesis of Deardorff. A particular case is considered for humidity where it is necessaryto choose between the two boundary conditions: evaporation and entrainment flux. The latter is chosen.1. Introduction The planetary boundary layer (PBL) plays a fundamental role in the dynamics of the atmosphere.Knowledge about this layer is important as it is

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Maithili Sharan, S. G. Gopalakrishnan, and R. T. McNider

., 39, 864–878. ——, G. DeMoor, P. Lacarrere, G. Therry, and R. DuVachat, 1978: Modeling the 24-hour evolution of the mean and turbulent structure of the planetary boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 1861–1883. Arya, S. P. S., 1984: Parametric relations for the atmospheric boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 30, 57–73. Blackadar, A. K., 1962: The vertical distribution of wind and turbulent exchange in neutral atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 67, 3095–3102. ——, 1979: High

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A. Cohen and M. Kleiman

order ~ This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S.Department of Energy.of I000 lun in the United States, Canada, and Europehas resulted in increased interest in the fine structureof the lower atmosphere, particularly in the diurnalcycle of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Therates of transport, dispersion, and chemical transformation of certain pollutants are affected considerably by

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L. Randall Koenig

dioxide and aerosols: Effects of large increases on the global climate. Science, 173, 138-141.Rodgers, C. D., and C. D. Walshaw, 1966: Computation of infrared cooling rate in planetary atmospheres. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 92, 67-92.Schneider, S. H., 1972: Cloudiness as a global climatic feedback mechanism: The effects on the radiation balance and surface temperature of variations in cloudiness. J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 1413-1422.Smagorinsky, J., 1969: Problems and promises of deterministic

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James B. Pollack, Owen B. Toon, Andrey Summers, Warren Van Camp, and Betty Baldwin

rotation band of water vapor. J. Opt. $oc. Amer., 50, 1232-1242.Pollack, J. B:, 1969a: A nongrey CO2-H20 greenhouse model of Venus. Icarus, 10, 314-341.--, 1969b: Temperature structure of nongrey planetary atmo spheres. Icarus, 10, 301-313.--, and G. Ohring, 1973: A numerical method for determining the temperature structure of planetary atmospheres. Icarus, 19, 3442.---, and O. B. Toon, 1974: A study of the effect of stratospheric aerosols produced by SST emissions on the albedo and

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U. Schumann, B. Mayer, K. Graf, and H. Mannstein

. Fu , Q. , and K. N. Liou , 1993 : Parameterization of the radiative properties of cirrus clouds . J. Atmos. Sci. , 50 , 2008 – 2025 . Gounou , A. , and R. J. Hogan , 2007 : A sensitivity study of the effect of horizontal photon transport on the radiative forcing of contrails . J. Atmos. Sci. , 64 , 1706 – 1716 . Hansen , J. E. , and L. D. Travis , 1974 : Light scattering in planetary atmospheres . Space Sci. Rev. , 16 , 527 – 610 . Hansen , J. E. , M. Sato , and R

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Sandrine Anquetin, Claude Guilbaud, and Jean-Pierre Chollet

and momentum fluxes introduce drag coefficients that depend on the stability of the atmosphere just above the ground and on the roughness length. Therefore, the only data required in this model is the soil texture type. In the present version, the equations are integrated with a prediction–correction method using time step, Δ t soil . Model evaluation To evaluate the response of the Submeso code to real atmospheric flows, a 24-h evolution of an experimentally documented planetary boundary layer

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K. E. Kunkel, E. W. Eloranta, and S. T. Shipley

, J. W., 1972: Numerical investigations of neutral and unstable planetary boundary layers. J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 91-115.Hall, F. F., 1972: Temperature and wind structure studies by acoustic echo-sounding. Remote Sensing of the Troposphere, Govt. Printing Office, Chap. 18.Hardy, K. R., and H. Ottersten, 1969: Radar investigations of convective patterns in the clear atmosphere. J. Atmos. S-i., 26, 666-672.Kaimai, J. C., and J. A. Businger, 1970: Case studies of a convective plume and a

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R. T. Pinker and I. Laszlo

atmosphere FIG. 3. Flowchart describing the derivation of a scaled surfacealbedo by using a reference surface spectral albedo model and observedbroadband planetary clear-sky composite albedo.The total shortwave irradiance is calculated by addingthe spectral irradiances: 5 SW~ = ~ SW~. (26) i=1 For a region of Nc~,~ and N-lo~ay pixels, a weightedaverage of the irradiances is computed:~ = (N~a~SWlc~a~ + Nc~o~avSWi,loua0

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