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J. D. Fast

evening. A subjective and statistical evaluation of the meteorologicaland dispersion results is performed to examine the effect of FDDA on the nocturnal circulations and tracertransport. The mesoscale model is able to qualitatively predict the mesobeta-scale drainage flows from the Front Rangeinto the South Platte River basin; however, the largest wind forecast errors occurred in a region immediatelyadjacent to the foothills. As expected, the current FDDA technique reduced the overall errors in the

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Kristopher Bedka, Jason Brunner, Richard Dworak, Wayne Feltz, Jason Otkin, and Thomas Greenwald

hours with corresponding visible and IRW channel imagery suggests that many of these pixels would be considered false alarms. Near-IR reflectance and ice particle effective radius techniques ( Lindsey and Grasso 2008 ; Rosenfeld et al. 2008 ) suffer from some of the same issues, making these techniques unreliable for and/or not applicable to objective day/night OT detection. As the GOES-R ABI satellite program and operational forecasters require product availability during both day and night, the

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John R. Mecikalski, John K. Williams, Christopher P. Jewett, David Ahijevych, Anita LeRoy, and John R. Walker

.13. [Available online at .] Lakshmanan , V. , T. Smith , K. Hondl , G. J. Stumpf , and A. Witt , 2006 : A real-time, three-dimensional, rapid updating, heterogeneous technique radar merger technique for reflectivity, velocity, and derived products . Wea. Forecasting , 21 , 802 – 823 , doi: 10.1175/WAF942.1 . Lakshmanan , V. , T. Smith , G. J. Stumpf , and K. Hondl , 2007 : The Warning Decision Support System–Integrated Information

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Walter A. Lyons

mesoscale study of the Chicago lake breeze, ten summer months of data (1966-68)were used to compile a climatology of this phenomena and devise a simple forecasting technique. The lakebreeze was found to occur at the Chicago shoreline on 36% of all days (out of a sample of 307). The time ofonset ranged from before 0600 to 1830 LST, with 0800-0900 LST being most frequent. The lake breezefront, defined as a narrow (1-2 km) band of convergence separating airflows with overland and overwatertrajectories, was

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Jonathan E. Pleim and Robert Gilliam

biases as shown by Gilliam et al. (2006) for MM5 runs using the PX LSM. Ren and Xue (2004) addressed this issue by adding a term to Eq. (11) that includes the lapse rate of the seasonal mean soil temperature that essentially accounts for seasonal heat flux from very deep layers. They showed improved results for their soil temperature forecasts for different seasons. However, because the modeling described here is intended primarily for retrospective simulations, nudging techniques can be

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F. Bouttier, J-F. Mahfouf, and J. Noilhan

modelcounterpart over the assimilation period. Although results obtained were quite good, this technique requiresa large amount of computing time (descent algorithm,adjoint of the forecast model). Thus, a simpler methodmore suitable for current operational assimilation systems was tested (Mahfouf 1991 ). This method consistsof a multiple linear regression between atmosphericforecast errors of temperature and relative humidityand corrections of soil moisture. A one-dimensionalvalidation was described by Mahfouf

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Donald W. Hillger and Thomas H. Vonder Haar

of the precipitable watercontent of the vertical sounding columns. Derived temperature values may be biased in general by the initialguess sounding, or in certain areas by the cloud correction technique, but the resulting relative temperaturechanges across the field when not contaminated by clouds will be useful for mesoscale forecasting and models.The derived moisture, however, since affected only by high clouds, proves to be reliable to within 0.5 cmof precipitable water and contains valuable

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John A. Knaff, Mark DeMaria, Debra A. Molenar, Charles R. Sampson, and Matthew G. Seybold

Islands. Nonetheless, the structure of the TC wind fields is routinely diagnosed at global operational forecast centers without aircraft reconnaissance. This diagnosis is often hampered by sparse in situ data and remotely sensed data from disparate sources. In a typical operational setting there are several sources of near-surface wind data located near TCs. Examples include wind speeds from the passive microwave sensors on the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) ( Goodberlet et al. 1989

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L. Li, W. Schmid, and J. Joss

with Doppler techniques (by suppressing the stationary ground clutter). COTREC may be useful for nowcesfing, especially in oroixaph/cally complex m'ea~ for orogmphic precipitationas well as for severe convective storms, the technique predicts the echo development approximately 20 minahead, and there is good hope to extend the forecasting period.1. Introduction A number of techniques have been developed in thelast threc decades for extrapolation of the observed ra*dar patterns into the future

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R. A. Christensen, R. F. Eilbert, O. H. Lindgren, and L. L. Rans

706 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLVM,:20NOTESSuccessful Hydrologic Forecasting for 'California Using an Information Theoretic ModelR. A. CHR1STENSEN, R. F. EILBERT, O. H. LINDGREN AND L. L. RANSEntropy Limited, South Great Road, Lincoln, MA 0177314 October 1980 and 26 January 1981ABSTRACT The Entropy Minimax technique from information theory has been applied to long

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