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P. L. Houtekamer, Herschel L. Mitchell, Gérard Pellerin, Mark Buehner, Martin Charron, Lubos Spacek, and Bjarne Hansen

observation type. For example, radiosonde profiles are subject to hydrostatic, lapse rate, and wind shear checks; aircraft reports are sorted by aircraft identifier and then quality controlled one aircraft at a time; while level-1b microwave radiances from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instruments are subject to a three-step bias-correction procedure. All observations are also subject to a “background check” that verifies that each observation is reasonably close to the available

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Yasu-Masa Kodama and Takuya Yamada

application. Microwave observations at 85 GHz can also detect eyewalls (e.g., Cecil and Zipser 1999 ). The 85-GHz TBB highlights ice meteors in upper-tropospheric clouds, whereas PR observations yield the vertical cloud structure throughout the troposphere. Detailed examination of the merits and shortcomings of practical applications of PR and 85-GHz microwave observations are left to future studies. Acknowledgments TRMM 2A25 and 1B01 products were provided by NASA and JAXA. Best track data were provided

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Lihong Zhang, Jiandong Gong, and Ruichun Wang

cloud motions detected by geostationary satellites (AMV); refractivity radio occultation data from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS-RO); and radiance data from Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A measurements (AMSU-A) carried by polar-orbiting satellites. In this paper, clear-sky AMSU-A radiances are assimilated, including the observations over the ocean of channels 5 and 6, and the global observations of channels 7–10. Many studies have shown that the forecast accuracy of the GRAPES can

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Randall S. Cerveny and Lynn E. Newman

tropical cyclonic rainfall. Acknowledgments We deeply thank Dr. Chris Landsea and two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments on this paper. REFERENCES Adler, R. F., and E. B. Rodgers. 1977: Satellite-observed latent heat release in tropical cyclones. Mon. Wea. Rev., 105, 956–963 . Alliss, R. L., S. Raman, and S. W. Chang, 1992: Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) observations of Hurricane Hugo (1989). Mon. Wea. Rev., 120, 2723–2737 . ——, G. D. Sandlin, S. W. Chang, and S. Raman

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L. Cucurull, R. Li, and T. R. Peevey

2007070.1 Cucurull , L. , and R. A. Anthes , 2015 : Impact of loss of microwave and radio occultation observations in operational numerical weather prediction in support of the U.S. data gap mitigation activities . Wea. Forecasting , 30 , 255 – 269 , doi: 10.1175/WAF-D-14-00077.1 . 10.1175/WAF-D-14-00077.1 Cucurull , L. , J. C. Derber , and R. J. Purser , 2013 : A bending angle forward operator for global positioning system radio occultation measurements . J. Geophys. Res. Atmos

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Wei Sun and Youping Xu

improving the forecasts, especially the microwave satellite observations ( Liu et al. 2012 ; Shen and Min 2015 ; Xu et al. 2013 , 2015 ; Zhang et al. 2016 ). For example, the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) data in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) system ( Bormann et al. 2013 ), the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSUA) and the ATMS data in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) system ( Collard et al. 2012 ; Zhu et al. 2016 ), and

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Mark Buehner, Ping Du, and Joël Bédard

observation impact calculations. Also shown are the average number of observations used in the 0000 UTC analyses (dark gray) and those in the 0600 UTC analyses (light gray). The observation types are the following: IASI, Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer; AMSU-A, Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A; CrIS, Cross-Track Infrared Sounder; AIRS, Atmospheric Infrared Sounder; ATMS, Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder; MHS, Microwave Humidity Sounder; GEO-Rad, geostationary satellite radiances; GEO

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Jason A. Otkin and Roland Potthast

1. Introduction Indirect observations of the atmosphere, ocean, and land surface conditions obtained using sophisticated satellite remote sensing instruments are an indispensable component of the global observing system. For numerical weather prediction (NWP) applications, satellite radiances from visible, infrared, and microwave bands provide important information about atmospheric variables, such as temperature, winds, water vapor, and clouds, as well as lower boundary variables such as soil

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Tony McNally, Massimo Bonavita, and Jean-Noël Thépaut

similar measurements (albeit not from the same satellite) are obtained from a given location many times per day. At very high latitudes the time sampling is significantly improved—with the same satellite typically returning to the pole every 100 min. The heterogeneous array of highly sophisticated sensors carried by polar-orbiting spacecraft provides complementary observations. Microwave and infrared sounders and imagers provide information on temperature and humidity by measuring emitted radiation

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N. C. Privé, R. M. Errico, and K.-S. Tai

1. Introduction Studies have shown that rawinsonde observations have a large impact on forecast skill, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere and tropics (e.g., Zapotocny et al. 2008 ; Gelaro and Zhu 2009 ). In most locations, rawinsondes are regularly released once or twice a day at 0000 and/or 1200 UTC, but the operational global forecasts at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) are run 4 times daily at 0000, 0600, 1200, and 1800 UTC. Anecdotally, the 0600 and 1800 UTC

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