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Robert Paine and Carl Berkowitz

dispersion modeling, boundary layer meteorology, cloud physics, atmospheric chemistry, fluid mechanics, and engineering. More than 160 papers were presented at the 1998 conference, covering such diverse topics as dispersion model evaluation, flow around obstacles, integrated assessments, meteorological measurements for air quality, coastal and complex terrain, accidental releases, planetary boundary layer processes, emissions modeling, and advanced modeling techniques. Other papers dealt with important

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Jehuda Neumann and Ariel Cohen

matter produced by man's activities.The essence of their argument is that these particlesenhance the planetary albedo with regard to solarradiation and thus less energy is available for heatingthe earth surface-atmosphere system (ESAS). To the list of papers discussing the increased turbidityof the atmosphere, as quoted by McCormick andLudwig, one can add that by Joseph and Manes (1971).The latter authors analyze Ashbel's spectral pyrhelio~metric data taken at Jerusalem in the years 1930-34and

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J. Srinivasan and G. L. Smith

explained on the basis ofthe theoretical results of Neelin and Held (1987) andof Chamey (1975). Neelin and Held (1987) showedthat for a sustained weather pattern (lasting severaldays) in the continental regions, the net energy convergence in the troposphere can be assumed to be equalto the net radiation at the top of the atmosphere (alsocalled the planetary net radiation). For a sustained pattern, the energy storage term in the atmosphere and theground can be neglected, and the net positive

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Steven T. Fiorino, Robb M. Randall, Michelle F. Via, and Jarred L. Burley

Turbulence Research in Support of the Airborne Laser ( Bussey et al. 2000 ), and the Global Aerosol Data Set (GADS; Koepke et al. 1997 ). GADS provides aerosol constituent number densities on a 5° × 5° grid worldwide ( Fiorino et al. 2008 ). Maritime aerosol environments are characterized using the wind speed–driven Advanced Navy Aerosol Model (ANAM; Gathman et al. 1998 ). An ExPERT atmosphere can be selected from the world map shown in Fig. 1 . The red circles indicate the 573 land surface sites

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Steven A. Ackerman and Toshiro Inoue

. We might therefore expect a couplingbetween the surface and the TOA fluxes. On the otherhand, advection of atmospheric water vapor and duststorms tends to decouple the energy budget at the topof the atmosphere from the surface physical properties.The collocated observations demonstrate the complexnature of deserts.a. Oceanic clear-sky results The effect of water vapor on the planetary radiativeenergy budget over oceans has recently been describedusing satellite observations by Raval and

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Daniel Guedalia, Alain Lopez, Jacques Fontan, and André Birot

concentrations of Aitken nuclei, small ions and radon show a sudden variation at the upperlimit of the planetary boundary layer which is due, at least in part, to the geographic location of the site atwhich the measurements were made. With certain simplifying hypotheses, the mean size of atmospheric aerosols can be deduced from thesemeasurements.1. Introduction The evolution of aerosols and pollutants of naturaland of man-made origin within the atmosphere is aproblem of considerable importance. In this

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Simon Wei-Jen Chang

stably stratified atmosphere. J. Fluid Mech., 3, 361-372.Willis, G. E., and J. W. Deardorff, 1974: A laboratory model of the unstable planetary boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 1297-1307.Wobds, J. D., 1969: On Richardson's number as a criterion for laminar-turbulence-laminar transition in the ocean and the atmosphere. Radio Sci., 4, 1289-1298.Wyngaard, J. C., and O. R. Cot~, 1975: The evolution of the convective planetary boundary layer--A higher-order-closure model study. Bound

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Yifan Fan, Yuguo Li, Xiaoxue Wang, and Franco Catalano

(simulated by many hot copper plates and cylinders) is visualized with thermochromic liquid crystal. Stable stratification in the atmosphere is simulated with saltwater. (b) Schematic of urban-dome flow. Three possible scenarios of pollutant dispersion outside an urban area are shown when urban-dome flow is formed. A number of methods have been used to study urban-dome circulation, including analytical (linearized models), numerical (direct numerical simulation, large-eddy simulation, and Reynolds

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C. David Whiteman, Sebastian W. Hoch, Manuela Lehner, and Thomas Haiden

1. Introduction The depths and strengths of temperature inversions in valleys and basins generally increase during the night, so that, by sunrise, a deep high-stability layer extends all the way to the ridge top (see, e.g., Whiteman et al. 1996 ). Our recent study of temperature inversion evolution at Arizona’s Meteor Crater, however, found an unusual temperature structure in the crater atmosphere on synoptically undisturbed nights ( Whiteman et al. 2008 ) characterized by a deep near

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David E. Pitts, W. E. McAllum, Michael Heidt, Keith Jeske, J. T. Lee, Dan DeMonbrun, Al Morgan, and John Potter

-523.Hansen, J. E., 1969: Exact and approximate solutions for multiple scattering by cloudy and hazy planetary atmospheres. J. Atmos. Sci., 26, 478487. , 1971: Multiple scattering of polarized light in planetary atmospheres. Part I. The doubling method. J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 120-125.Pitts, D. E., William McAllum and Alyce E. Dillinger, 1974a: Measurements of atmospheric precipitable water using a solar radiometer. NASA TM X-58129. ' , T. L. Barnett, C. L. Korb, Walter Hanby and Alyce E

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