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Michael S. Schwendeman and Jim Thomson

(breaking dissipation)? Advances have been made primarily through numerical and laboratory simulations, as measurements of oceanic breakers, or “whitecaps,” are particularly difficult ( Perlin et al. 2013 ). In this paper, observations of whitecaps are presented from a ship-based stereo video system. The focus is on the geometry of the breaking waves, especially their steepness, which is thought to be a critical factor for both onset and dissipation. In deep water, the geometry of a linear monochromatic

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George Mellor and Alan Blumberg

for geophysical fluid problems. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. , 20 , 851 – 875 . Pollard , R. T. , 1970 : On the generation of inertial waves in the ocean. Deep-Sea Res. , 17 , 795 – 812 . Schlicting , H. , 1968 : Boundary Layer Theory. 6th ed. McGraw-Hill, 747 pp . Smith , S. D. , and Coauthors , 1992 : Sea surface wind stress and drag coefficients: The HEXOS results. Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 60 , 109 – 142 . Stacey , M. W. , 1999 : Simulations of the wind-forced near

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David W. Wang and Paul A. Hwang

both higher and lower frequencies. These parameterized directional distributions have been widely used for ocean wave models and engineering applications. The bimodal directional distribution, unlike the unimodal function, indicates that most wave energy is in two sidelobes symmetrically located about the wind direction. This bimodal feature with most wave energy propagating at two directions oblique to the wind direction has been observed in studies on spatial measurements by stereo

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Friederike Pollmann, Carsten Eden, and Dirk Olbers

consistent parameterization for the diapycnal diffusivity induced by breaking internal gravity waves ( Olbers and Eden 2013 ), was developed. We here present a first assessment of its performance. Internal gravity waves are a ubiquitous feature of the global ocean and can be excited by a fluctuating wind stress at the surface (near-inertial waves), the scattering of the barotropic tide at rough topography (internal tides), the dissipation of mesoscale eddies or the geostrophic adjustment of large

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Ana B. Villas Bôas, Bruce. D. Cornuelle, Matthew. R. Mazloff, Sarah. T. Gille, and Fabrice Ardhuin

1. Introduction Surface waves are part of the physical boundary that separates the ocean from the atmosphere, mediating exchanges of momentum, heat, energy, gases, and other tracers between these two media ( Cavaleri et al. 2012 ; Villas Bôas et al. 2019 ). Waves are modulated by ocean currents via wave–current interactions, which lead to variations in their direction, frequency, and amplitude ( Phillips 1966 ; Peregrine 1976 ). The effects of ocean currents on surface waves have been

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Allan J. Clarke

Jury 1983 ALLAN J. CLARKE 1193 The Reflection of Equatorial Waves from Oceanic Boundaries ALLAN J. CLARKE1Department of Oceanography and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Institute, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306(Manuscript received 29 September 1982, in final form 21 March 1983) ABSTRACT Theory is developed to

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Fabrice Ardhuin and Alastair D. Jenkins

1. Introduction Swell is the least-well-predicted part of the wave spectrum ( Rogers 2002 ), and often causes surprises for operations at sea and on the coast. Snodgrass et al. (1966) observed a surprising conservation of energy of surface waves with 15–20-s periods, generated by a storm in the Southern Ocean and propagating undisturbed from New Zealand to Alaska, across turbulent equatorial regions with easterly winds and strong currents. In addition to interaction with the airflow that

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Toshiaki Shinoda, Paul E. Roundy, and George N. Kiladis

. 2003 ). These wind-induced signals propagate eastward along the equator as Kelvin waves, which cause prominent intraseasonal variability of the upper ocean and sea surface temperature (SST) in the central and eastern Pacific (e.g., Enfield 1987 ; Spillane et al. 1987 ; Kessler et al. 1995 ; Hendon et al. 1998 ; McPhaden 2002 ). Recent studies suggest that these intraseasonal Kelvin waves produced by the MJO play an important role in the onset and development of some El Niño events (e

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D. Vandemark, B. Chapron, J. Sun, G. H. Crescenti, and H. C. Graber

1. Introduction The mean relationship between sea wave slope statistics and near-surface ocean wind speed has long been established ( Cox and Munk 1956 ), as has the tie between these optically derived wave slope variance measurements and the ocean radar backscatter measured by a microwave altimeter ( Barrick 1968b ; Jackson et al. 1992 ). However, it has also been supposed for decades that factors such as wind gustiness, currents, fetch, and long gravity wave dynamics will serve to

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Yu Zhang and Joseph Pedlosky

1. Introduction As revealed by analysis of the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon data of sea surface height ( Chelton and Schlax 1996 ), the first-mode baroclinic Rossby waves emanating from the eastern boundary of the Pacific Ocean can propagate westward across the basin only in low-latitude regions (see their Fig. 4). In middle-latitude regions, the wave patterns of the sea level signals fade soon after they leave the coast and, at the same time, an eddy field emerges. To explain

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