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Haruyasu Nagai

Introduction Exchange of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) between the atmosphere and land surface is important for predicting climatic changes; however, it has not been understood well. The modeling and clarification of CO 2 exchanges among the atmosphere, soil, and vegetation and the prediction of the impact of climatic changes on the land surface exchange processes for heat, water, and CO 2 remain as great challenges in this field. These challenges are also strongly related to the dry and wet

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Linyun Yang, Shuyu Wang, Jianping Tang, Xiaorui Niu, and Congbin Fu

applied to the upper atmosphere and increases with height, which keeps the dynamics of RCMs creating small-scale to mesoscale features at the lower atmosphere and at the same time ensures the consistency of RCM with driving data at the upper atmosphere ( Hong and Chang 2012 ; Heikkilä et al. 2011 ; Radu et al. 2008 ). Studies show that both the grid and spectral nudging can effectively improve the performance of RCMs by displaying better consistency with large-scale circulation patterns ( Spero et

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P. A. Mandics and E. J. Owens

1110 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOI.~0ME14Observations of the Marine Atmosphere Using a Ship-Mounted Acoustic Echo Sounder P. A. MANDICS AND E. J. OWENSPropagation Laboratory, NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories, Boulder, Colo. 80302 (Manuscript received 27 June 1974, in revised form 6 March 1975)ABSTRACT A monostatic acoustic echo sounder with a vertically

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A. de la Torre, P. Alexander, and J. Cornejo

Introduction The use of balloons has been increasingly attracting the interest of researchers. They have been used as a scientific platform with useful loads for experiments, space observations, and particularly for the study of the atmosphere of the earth and other planets. The advantages in the use of balloons in atmospheric soundings versus other techniques based on rocket-borne instruments or ground-based measurements are at present clearly recognized. A relevant benefit is given by the

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John C. Wyngaard

NOVEMBER 1985 JOHN C. WYNGAARD 1131Structure of the Planetary Boundary Layer and Implications for its Modeling JOHN C. WYNGAARDNational Center for Atmospheric Research,* Boulder, CO 80307(Manuscript received 29 August 1984, in final form 4 January 1985)ABSTRACT Through the innovative use of laboratory experiments, numerical simulations, and direct measurements,researchers have greatly

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Shafiqul Islam, Rafael L. Bras, and Kerry A. Emanuel

FEBRU^RV 1993 ISLAM ET AL. 297Predictability of Mesoscale Rainfall in the Tropics SHAFIQUL ISLAM *Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio RAFAEL L. BRASRalph M. Parsons Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts KERRY A. EMANUELDepartment of Earth, Atmosphere, and Planetary

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Mark Žagar, Gunilla Svensson, and Michael Tjernström

atmosphere–ocean interaction, the subject of this paper, among the important assumptions are homogeneity of the surface roughness and a straight coastline. Processes at the surface and within the upper level of the sea are in general strongly affected, if not dominated, by the condition of the atmospheric environment. On the other hand, the atmosphere is also experiencing a strong forcing from the water surfaces. Exchange of heat between water and air is a very strong contributor to the atmospheric

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F. T. M. Nieuwstadt

estimates for vertical diffusion from sources near the ground. Atmos. Environ., 12, 2125-2129.Willis, G. E. and J. W. Deardorff, 1974: A laboratory model of the unstable planetary boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 1297-1307. -Wyngaard, J. C., 1973: On surface layer turbulence. Workshop on Micrometeorology, D. A. Haugen, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 101-149.Yaglom, A. M., 1972: Turbulent diffusion in the surface layer of the atmosphere, lzv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 8, 333-340.

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Charles R. Molenkamp

(1970)over the ocean. Above the surface flux layer is the planetary boundary layer with diffusion coefficients following the functional form' of O'Brien (1970) when thesurface layer is unstable and the Richardson-numberbased parameterization of McNider and Pielke ( 1981 )when it is stable. In the free atmosphere, above theplanetary boundary layer, a constant exchange coefficient is used. The height of the planetary boundarylayer is calculated according to Deardorff's (1974)prognostid equation

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Reginald E. Newell and Alvin J. Miller

-380.Pasquill, F., 1962: Atmospheric Diffusion. London, D. Van Nos trand Co., 297 pp.Peng, L., 1965: Stratospheric wind temperature and isobaric height conditions during the IGY period: Part III. Rept. No. 15, Planetary Circulations Project, Dept. of Meteorology, M. I. T., 201 pp.Prabhakara, C., 1963: Effects of non-photochemical processes 9n the meridional distribution and total amount of ozone in the atmosphere. Mon. Wea. Rev., 91, 441-431.Reed, R. J., and K. E. German, 1965: A contribution to

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