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Leila M. V. Carvalho and Charles Jones

the “twentieth-century simulation”) was forced by observed atmospheric composition changes, which include both anthropogenic and natural sources as well as time-evolving land cover. The historic run covers the period 1 January 1951–31 December 2005. In addition, CMIP5 simulations of climate projection are forced with specified concentrations referred to as representative concentration pathways and provide a rough estimate of the radiative forcing in the year 2100 relative to preindustrial

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Xianan Jiang, Eric D. Maloney, Jui-Lin F. Li, and Duane E. Waliser

groups with the aim of furthering our understanding of past and future climate change in key areas of uncertainty ( Taylor et al. 2012 ). In this study, simulations from 16 atmosphere–ocean GCMs (AOGCMs) using a “historical” scenario are analyzed for the period of 1981–2005 to explore model fidelity in representing ENP ISV in the current climate. The historical forcings used to generate these runs include estimates of changes in atmospheric composition from natural and anthropogenic sources

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Brian A. Colle, Zhenhai Zhang, Kelly A. Lombardo, Edmund Chang, Ping Liu, and Minghua Zhang

et al. 2012 ), which provides a unique multimodel framework for assessing future climate change and the mechanisms responsible for model differences. The CMIP5 data are available at 6-h intervals, which for the first time allows for the tracking of cyclones in a multimodel framework. There is a historical period from the mid-nineteenth century to 2005 forced by observed atmospheric composition changes (reflecting both anthropogenic and natural sources) and time-evolving land cover. Each of the

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