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Sue Ellen Haupt, Robert M. Rauber, Bruce Carmichael, Jason C. Knievel, and James L. Cogan

( FAA 2017a ). By 1938, the threat of war in Europe motivated the U.S. military to begin a significant expansion of their weather services. Along with significant scientific advancement in weather forecasting techniques, radiosondes were rapidly being introduced in the United States and Europe, replacing the limited airplane soundings. This availability of routine upper-air information was responsible for a breakthrough in forecasting skill, including flight at higher altitudes. By 1939

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Jeffrey L. Stith, Darrel Baumgardner, Julie Haggerty, R. Michael Hardesty, Wen-Chau Lee, Donald Lenschow, Peter Pilewskie, Paul L. Smith, Matthias Steiner, and Holger Vömel

molecules have been developed ( Korb et al. 1992 ; McKay 1998 ; Bruneau 2001 ; Tucker et al. 2018 ). Aeolus , a Doppler lidar mission incorporating Fabry–Perot and Fizeau interferometers to measure global wind profiles from space, was launched in August 2018 by the European Space Agency ( Lux et al. 2018 ). Aeolus will provide single line of sight wind profiles for assimilation into numerical forecast models. Lidar techniques have been developed for sampling the structure and dynamics of the upper

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Ismail Gultepe, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Martin Gallagher, Luisa Ickes, and Darrel Baumgardner

the future studies that will be needed to overcome them. 2. Ice fog formation, evolution, and microphysical properties Ice fog consists of a suspension of ice crystals at temperatures generally lower than −20°C. Its classification as a fog is somewhat subjective, but operationally, that is, when used to forecast driving or flying conditions, it is defined by a visibility less than 1 km. Visibility is one property that distinguishes ice fog from another surface cloud type called “diamond dust” that

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W.-K. Tao, Y. N. Takayabu, S. Lang, S. Shige, W. Olson, A. Hou, G. Skofronick-Jackson, X. Jiang, C. Zhang, W. Lau, T. Krishnamurti, D. Waliser, M. Grecu, P. E. Ciesielski, R. H. Johnson, R. Houze, R. Kakar, K. Nakamura, S. Braun, S. Hagos, R. Oki, and A. Bhardwaj

much improvement can be obtained in predictions with LH profile-based data assimilation. However, this is worth considering from a theoretical perspective since it is the vertical distribution of diabatic heating that determines the nature of many low-latitude circulations. Thus, it seems reasonable to expect that improved data assimilation techniques involving accurate LH profile data will ultimately improve NWP forecasts on a consistent basis. Two examples are provided to show how TRMM

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S. A. Ackerman, S. Platnick, P. K. Bhartia, B. Duncan, T. L’Ecuyer, A. Heidinger, G. Skofronick-Jackson, N. Loeb, T. Schmit, and N. Smith

using active or passive techniques that are calibrated and georeferenced. In some cases the observed radiances are made into an image. Weather forecasting and briefings make use of animated satellite imagery to monitor atmospheric conditions. Radiances are also directly assimilated in numerical weather prediction models. For many other applications, the measured radiances are transformed into geophysical parameters (e.g., energy flux, temperature profiles, aerosol optical depth) using computer

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Eli J. Mlawer, Michael J. Iacono, Robert Pincus, Howard W. Barker, Lazaros Oreopoulos, and David L. Mitchell

major triumph for the program. Section 2 of this chapter discusses the development of RRTMG and its implementation in various general circulation models (GCMs), most notably the Integrated Forecast System of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and the Community Earth System Model (CESM1) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Although the core of RRTMG is its stored tables of gaseous absorption coefficients and algorithms that operate on these coefficients, the

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David M. Schultz, Lance F. Bosart, Brian A. Colle, Huw C. Davies, Christopher Dearden, Daniel Keyser, Olivia Martius, Paul J. Roebber, W. James Steenburgh, Hans Volkert, and Andrew C. Winters

forecasting endeavors using synoptic-scale data analyses and later numerical weather prediction (NWP) techniques. The progress achieved during the past century is traced throughout this chapter in a series of sections by an ensemble of authors and their personal perspectives. For a comparison with previous syntheses, we refer to the AMS-sponsored volumes Compendium of Meteorology ( Malone 1951 ), Extratropical Cyclones: The Erik Palmén Memorial Volume ( Newton and Holopainen 1990 ), and The Life

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Maria Carmen Lemos, Hallie Eakin, Lisa Dilling, and Jessica Worl

. 2. Social science in the American Meteorological Society Although humans have been increasingly the focus of attention within the scope of climate and weather research, contributions from social sciences as a significant and stand-alone body of work have come late to AMS. In one sense, AMS has had a long-term orientation of its science toward societal needs because its earliest members were professional meteorologists seeking to improve the forecasting of weather and extreme events for the

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Kerry Emanuel

-entropy convective downdrafts prevent most tropical disturbances from becoming tropical storms. The 1950s and 1960s saw the rapid development of techniques for quantitative forecasting of tropical cyclone motion. Charney, Fjørtoft, and von Neumann ( Charney et al. 1950 ) had shown that the numerical integration of the barotropic vorticity equation was feasible using newly developed digital computers, but the severe limitations of the computers of that generation did not allow regional grid meshes with spacing of

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Greg M. McFarquhar and Robert M. Rauber

sequential manner, we have tried to do this as logically as possible. The first chapter summarizes the role of AMS in supporting the scientific community over the 100 years of its existence ( Seitter et al. 2019 ). Thereafter, because the atmospheric and related sciences are primarily observationally driven, the next chapters summarize the systems that have been used to observe the atmosphere and the ocean, both through conventional and in situ techniques ( Stith et al. 2019 ; Davis et al. 2019 ) and

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