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Gerald M. Heymsfield, Lin Tian, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Lihua Li, and Stephen Guimond

strongest 10% of updrafts and downdrafts in hurricanes had averages of 4.2 and 2.6 m s −1 , respectively, and peak updrafts of ∼8 m s −1 . Anderson et al. (2005) examined updrafts in tropical convective storms using measurements from the higher-altitude Citation jet aircraft. They examined similarities between tropical oceanic and land cases from TRMM Large-Scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) and the Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX). Unlike earlier studies that used flight level data

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Andrew J. Heymsfield, Aaron Bansemer, Gerald Heymsfield, and Alexandre O. Fierro

cloud for those periods when the ocean surface is not detected in the figure. Fig . 5. As in Fig. 3 , but for NAMMA cases on 20 Aug and 12 Sep 2006. Regions with relative humidities near water saturation (RH > 97%), vertical velocities, are highlighted. Fig . 6. Radar imagery from the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) Precipitation Radar 2 (PR2) radar on 25 Sep 2001 from 0019:39 to 0032:29 UTC. The location of the eyewall is shown. (After Heymsfield et al. 2005 ) Fig . 7. Particle concentration (3–50- μ m

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R. A. Hansell, S. C. Tsay, Q. Ji, N. C. Hsu, M. J. Jeong, S. H. Wang, J. S. Reid, K. N. Liou, and S. C. Ou

(AVHRR) Pathfinder (V5) dataset, obtained from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s physical oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) (see ). An equivalent spherical (hereafter E-S) dust microphysical model based on the Volz (1973) refractive indices ( λ = 2.5–39 μ m) formed the primary aerosol inputs to the code. The spectral range of the refractive indices was extended to cover all band wavelengths in the Fu–Liou model by incorporating the refractive indices

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Joël Arnault and Frank Roux

of the African easterly jet (AEJ) near 3000-m altitude (e.g., Erickson 1963 ; Burpee 1972 ). Norquist et al. (1977) , following the energetic analysis in L55 , showed that the growth of AEWs over West Africa is likely to be the consequence of a both barotropic and baroclinic instability of the AEJ. AEWs usually reach their maximal amplitude near the Guinean coast and start to decrease as they reach the tropical Atlantic Ocean, where baroclinic growth is reduced (e.g., Norquist et al. 1977

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