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Georg J. Mayr and Laurence Armi

California with a ground-based, eye-safe, scanning aerosol lidar. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 48 , 1483 – 1499 . Grubišić , V. , and Coauthors , 2008 : The Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment: An overview of the field campaign and some highlights of special observations. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 89 , 1513 – 1533 . Jiang , Q. , and J. D. Doyle , 2008 : On the diurnal variation of mountain waves. J. Atmos. Sci. , 65 , 1360 – 1377 . Mayr , G. J. , and L. Armi , 2008 : Föhn as a

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James D. Doyle and Dale R. Durran

the subject of two of the first modern U.S. multiagency field programs in meteorology, the Sierra Wave Project (SWP) and its follow-on, the Jet Stream Project (JSP), both of which took place in the early 1950s ( Holmboe and Klieforth 1957 ; Grubišić and Lewis 2004 ). With the exception of research aircraft observations of several rotor events in the lee of the Rocky Mountains ( Lester and Fingerhut 1974 ) and occasional serendipitous remote sensing lidar measurements of rotors ( Banta et al. 1990

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Qingfang Jiang and James D. Doyle

moisture profiles and idealized topography, such as a two-dimensional ridge or an isolated hill. Observation-based studies of realistic synoptic flow past complex terrain are still rare. This study is inspired by observations obtained during the Terrain-induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX; Grubišić et al. 2008 ). Our primary objective is to examine the impact of moisture on mountain waves associated with the interaction between westerly or southwesterly moist airflow and the Sierra Mountains. T-REX took

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Vanda Grubišić and Brian J. Billings

of atmospheric rotors was considerably advanced during the 1950s Sierra Wave Project in Owens Valley, California, in the lee of the southern Sierra Nevada ( Holmboe and Klieforth 1957 ). While primarily designed as a study of the mountain lee-wave phenomenon, data on atmospheric rotors were collected as well because the primary instrumentation in both phases of this project were instrumented sailplanes ( Grubišić and Lewis 2004 ). A number of important observations relating to the mountain wave

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Juerg Schmidli, Gregory S. Poulos, Megan H. Daniels, and Fotini K. Chow

), aerosol and Doppler lidars, sonic and profile measurements from three 30-m and several smaller flux towers, and standard meteorological observations from an array of surface stations. Most systems were located along two valley transects just south of Independence. In this study, the southernmost wind profiler/RASS system and the 1.5-hourly radiosonde ascents from Independence airport are used to document the evolution of the valley flow, and flux data from the three 30-m Integrated Surface Flux

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Junhong Wang, Jianchun Bian, William O. Brown, Harold Cole, Vanda Grubišić, and Kate Young

towers, airborne sensors, and ground-based remote sensors (radar, lidar, sodar, and wind profiler; e.g., Balsley et al. 1988 ; Van Zandt 2000 ; Contini et al. 2004 ; Shupe et al. 2008 ). Each of these instruments and techniques has its own strengths and limitations, and they all are expensive. The tower and airborne sensors are limited in vertical coverage, and the VV obtained from wind profilers is susceptible to several types of biases ( Rao et al. 2008 ). The intent of this paper is to explore

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Stefano Serafin, Lukas Strauss, and Vanda Grubišić

, 151 – 158 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0450(2003)042<0151:PDCEIB>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0450(2003)042<0151:PDCEIB>2.0.CO;2 Kühnlein , C. , A. Dörnbrack , and M. Weissmann , 2013 : High-resolution Doppler lidar observations of transient downslope flows and rotors . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 141 , 3257 – 3272 , doi: 10.1175/MWR-D-12-00260.1 . 10.1175/MWR-D-12-00260.1 Li , Y. , R. B. Smith , and V. Grubišić , 2009 : Using surface pressure variations to categorize diurnal valley circulations

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