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Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn A. McMurdie, and Robert A. Houze Jr.

future work. Fig . 1. Idealized diagram of the sectors of an extratropical cyclone passing over the Olympic Mountains. Reproduced from Houze et al. (2017) . It is well known that the precipitation associated with these landfalling extratropical storms is enhanced on the windward slopes of west-coastal mountains. Neiman et al. (2002) used wind profiler observations to show that the rain rate on windward slopes in the California coastal range is highly correlated with the intensity of unblocked low

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David J. Purnell and Daniel J. Kirshbaum

-barrier precipitation ratios over the Washington Cascades ( Mass et al. 2015 ). Other studies have investigated the synoptic control on cloud microphysics in Cascades precipitation events ( Hobbs 1975 ; Medina et al. 2007 ). The objective of this study is to use observations and numerical simulations to quantify and interpret the synoptic controls on orographic precipitation distributions during OLYMPEX. These distributions are evaluated for three different frontal phases: warm frontal (WF), warm sector (WS), and

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Bin Pei and Firat Y. Testik

are composed of small spherical raindrops (e.g., low rain-rate events). Therefore, although such radars can detect smaller particles (e.g., cloud drops), they are suitable for observations within a shorter range and for certain environmental conditions. a. CSU-HIDRO The CSU-HIDRO rainfall retrieval algorithm utilizes a combination of four rain-rate estimators as presented in Fig. 1 (reproduced from Cifelli et al. 2011 ). These estimators are , , , and . The empirical formulations for these

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