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Dong L. Wu and Stephen D. Eckermann

, 1357 – 1383 . McLandress , C. , and J. F. Scinocca , 2005 : The GCM response to current parameterizations of nonorographic gravity wave drag. J. Atmos. Sci. , 62 , 2394 – 2413 . McLandress , C. , M. J. Alexander , and D. L. Wu , 2000 : Microwave limb sounder observations of gravity waves in the stratosphere: A climatology and interpretation. J. Geophys. Res. , 105 , 11947 – 11967 . O’Sullivan , D. , and T. J. Dunkerton , 1995 : Generation of inertia–gravity waves in a

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Christopher E. Holloway and J. David Neelin

. , R. Milliff , and J. Morzel , 2009 : Composite life cycle of maritime tropical mesoscale convective systems in scatterometer and microwave satellite observations. J. Atmos. Sci. , 66 , 199 – 208 . Mather , J. H. , T. P. Ackerman , W. E. Clements , F. J. Barnes , M. D. Ivey , L. D. Hatfield , and R. M. Reynolds , 1998 : An atmospheric radiation and cloud station in the tropical western Pacific. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 79 , 627 – 642 . Neelin , J. D. , O

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Christopher A. Davis, David A. Ahijevych, Julie A. Haggerty, and Michael J. Mahoney

. However, it is also possible that the warm anomaly is related to gravity waves excited by convection, although the exact mechanism remains unclear. 4. Conclusions Observations of spatial and temporal aspects of temperature in the UTLS region from a microwave temperature profiler (MTP) have highlighted features that accompany synoptic-scale tropical weather systems. Revealing mesoscale structures is particularly challenging in the tropics where horizontal gradients of temperature do not systematically

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Robin J. Hogan and Christopher D. Westbrook

lead to very good agreement between collocated Rayleigh-scattering radar measurements and aircraft observations in clouds containing unrimed ice particles. While the computed reflectivity factor Z 94 does depend on the mass–size relationship, the difference in Z 94 between different scattering models does not depend on the prefactor of the mass–size relationship and is only weakly dependent on the exponent. Thus differences between models are essentially a function of particle size only, and

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Jean-Luc Moncet, Gennady Uymin, Alan E. Lipton, and Hilary E. Snell

-time monochromatic radiative transfer calculations (including the Jacobians) for any class of multispectral, hyperspectral, or ultraspectral sensor at any spectral region from the microwave through the ultraviolet ( Moncet 2000 ; Moncet et al. 2001a ). Validation capabilities and multisensor data assimilation are enhanced with across-the-spectrum capability, allowing the same radiative transfer model to be used with multiple sensors to ensure spectral consistency. The key problem in designing an accurate, yet

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Brian Mapes, Ralph Milliff, and Jan Morzel

oceans because the time scale is too short to resolve with cloud-penetrating satellite instruments on polar orbiters, yet it is long enough that systems move in or out of range of ship-based field observations. Aircraft cannot be targeted to initiation events because these are not well forecast, and flight durations also tend to fall short of the full life span. Composite studies offer a way to extend the frequent sampling of infrared (IR) imagery to other observations that are taken less frequently

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Xiaoxu Tian and Xiaolei Zou

-A/ATMS instruments and the AMSU-A instrument on board the EUMETSAT MetOp-B satellite during the lifetimes of Hurricanes Irma, Maria and Harvey (2017). The five polar-orbiting operational satellite microwave instruments can provide observations of hurricanes at 2- or 3-h intervals. This allows the diurnal cycles of the TC warm-core structure and intensity to be captured. AMSU-A measurements from MetOp-A and -B for Hurricane Irma were not made available at the NOAA Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship

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Hiroyuki Yamada, Kunio Yoneyama, Masaki Katsumata, and Ryuichi Shirooka

mechanism of the multiscale structure and eastward propagation of a SCC. 6. Summary The multiscale structure of a super cloud cluster (SCC) over the equatorial Indian Ocean was investigated mainly using data from satellite microwave sensors and surface-based observations. This SCC developed in a convectively active phase during an intensive field experiment (MISMO) from November through December 2006, which was conducted to learn more about the onset mechanism of convection associated with the MJO

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H. D. Toong and D. H. Staelin

of observations was ~mdertaken during the summer of 1966.One frontal passage was selected for detailed analysisand is described here. It indicates that the integratedwater vapor abundance can be determined even duringmoderate rain, and that the liquid water content ofthe atmosphere can be estimated simultaneously.2, Theoretical microwave spectrum of the atmosphere Theoretical microwave spectra were computed fora large ntm~ber of model atmospheres in order to matchthe spectra actually

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P. Bauer, L. Schanz, R. Bennartz, and P. Schlüssel

the microwave measurements are mainly determined by the interior of clouds, the optical imagers add valuable information about the horizontal cloud structure and top temperatures ( Browning 1990 ). In the past, long-term and large-scale observations ofrainfall distributions have been obtained from measurements by single passive sensors on operational geosynchronous or polar-orbiting satellites. Since 1987 the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) onboard the polar-orbiting Defense Meteorological

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