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Kelly Elder, Angus Goodbody, Don Cline, Paul Houser, Glen E. Liston, Larry Mahrt, and Nick Rutter

. Analog data were sampled and recorded at 100 Hz. Fast response temperatures and water vapor mixing ratios were collected and recorded. 3. Supplemental meteorological observations a. U.S. Forest Service observations All three of the Fraser ISAs are located within the Fraser Experimental Forest, a research watershed monitored by the Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. Daily discharge measurements from Lower Fool Creek and

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John Pomeroy, Chad Ellis, Aled Rowlands, Richard Essery, Janet Hardy, Tim Link, Danny Marks, and Jean Emmanuel Sicart

. 1975 ), productivity ( Eagleson 2002 ), and stage of succession ( Ross et al. 1986 ; Parker et al. 2002 ). It is possible to link the canopy transmittance of shortwave radiation to laser remote sensing observations of forest structure ( Parker et al. 2002 ). For discontinuous stands, shortwave irradiance into gaps and the north edge of gaps (in the Northern Hemisphere) is much greater than that under more shaded parts of the canopy ( Satterlund 1983 ). The previously cited literature suggests the

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Jeffrey S. Deems, Steven R. Fassnacht, and Kelly J. Elder

subalpine forest of varying density. Field observations indicate that snow distributions at both sites are dominated by wind redistribution and interaction, with terrain and vegetation patterns. Wind direction frequency distributions, calculated from meteorological data collected at each of the study sites for both snow seasons in this study ( Elder et al. 2008 ), indicate that winds of speeds greater than 5 m s −1 (at 10 m elevation) are confined to narrow direction bands ( Fig. 3 ). b. 2003 and 2005

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Richard Essery, Peter Bunting, Aled Rowlands, Nick Rutter, Janet Hardy, Rae Melloh, Tim Link, Danny Marks, and John Pomeroy

. (16) . The coefficient of variation is then given by where d is the diffuse fraction from Eq. (14) or measurements. This predicts that the CV should have a constant value of σ υ / for overcast conditions and decrease with increasing transmission for clear conditions, as noted in the previous section for both observations and simulations. A parameterization is required for p t . With the assumption of opaque canopy elements, p t for a particular elevation is equal to the gap

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