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Tomoe Nasuno, Tim Li, and Kazuyoshi Kikuchi

). Ray and Li (2013) evaluated the relative importance of circumnavigating signals and extratropical forcing by performing sensitivity experiments using a general circulation model and concluded that extratropical forcing was more important than were circumnavigating signals in association with mean moisture convergence. They demonstrated that the upper-tropospheric wave energy that originated in the extratropics intruded into the equatorial region to initiate the MJO. However, no detailed

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Sharon L. Sessions, Stipo Sentić, and David J. Raymond

coupling between the dynamics and thermodynamics that characterize the balanced dynamics framework. This framework complements existing theories of convective evolution observed during DYNAMO, and the corresponding diagnostics may be applied to evaluate models and improve convective parameterizations. Whether or not tropical convection is a response to balanced dynamics or is primarily a consequence of stochastic processes is largely a matter of scale. Ooyama (1982) argued that balanced flow is

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Hungjui Yu, Paul E. Ciesielski, Junhong Wang, Hung-Chi Kuo, Holger Vömel, and Ruud Dirksen

station metadata regarding if and when sites were upgraded to this new software, its impact on radiosonde climate records remains unknown, and moreover, it cannot be adapted and improved by users for their data ( Wang et al. 2013 ). Thus, an important first step is a thorough evaluation of the data produced by this new algorithm. To address the shortcomings of the global operational networks for climate studies and to ensure that future climate records are more useful than the records to date, the

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Ji-Eun Kim, Chidong Zhang, George N. Kiladis, and Peter Bechtold

, D. Wu , and G. Thompson , 2014a : Evaluation of convection-permitting model simulations of cloud populations associated with the Madden-Julian oscillation using data collected during the AMIE/DYNAMO field campaign . J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. , 119 , 12 052 – 12 068 , . 10.1002/2014JD022143 Hagos , S. , Z. Feng , K. Landu , and C. N. Long , 2014b : Advection, moistening, and shallow-to-deep convection transitions during the initiation and

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Kacie E. Hoover, John R. Mecikalski, Timothy J. Lang, Xuanli Li, Tyler J. Castillo, and Themis Chronis

, this study performed Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF; Skamarock et al. 2008 ) Model simulations for two different MJO events with the assimilation of observations collected during the 2011–12 Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign ( Zhang et al. 2013 ). The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) To demonstrate how satellite simulators can be used to examine a mission’s capabilities for accomplishing secondary tasks (in the case of CYGNSS, characterizing tropical convection and the MJO

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H. Bellenger, K. Yoneyama, M. Katsumata, T. Nishizawa, K. Yasunaga, and R. Shirooka

features to be studied with this campaign. The importance of this preconditioning for deep convection associated with the MJO has been stressed by many observational (e.g., Johnson et al. 1999 ; Kikuchi and Takayabu 2004 ; Holloway and Neelin 2009 ) and modeling studies (e.g., Zhang and Song 2009 ; Cai et al. 2013 ). A possible consequence of our lack of understanding of the origin of this preconditioning is the limitation of the forecast skill of the timing of the MJO triggering. Indeed, forecast

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Simon P. de Szoeke and Eric D. Maloney

Jensen (2017) demonstrate that persistent warm SST anomalies associated with downwelling oceanic Rossby waves can help to initiate the MJO in the western Indian Ocean. We evaluate the mass and moisture convergence (and hence MSE convergence) due to MJO composite SST anomalies with the wind field calculated from the diagnostic model of Back and Bretherton (2009 , hereafter BB09 ). Because the mean MSE profile decreases to the middle troposphere then increases to the tropopause, upward vertical

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Simon P. de Szoeke, James B. Edson, June R. Marion, Christopher W. Fairall, and Ludovic Bariteau

model . J. Atmos. Sci. , 50 , 2922 – 2939 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1993)050<2922:TIOIAS>2.0.CO;2 . Dee , D. P. , and Coauthors , 2011 : The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 137 , 553 – 597 , doi: 10.1002/qj.828 . DeMott , C. A. , C. Stan , D. A. Randall , and M. D. Branson , 2014 : Intraseasonal variability in coupled GCMs: The roles of ocean feedbacks and model physics . J. Climate , 27

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David M. Zermeño-Díaz, Chidong Zhang, Pavlos Kollias, and Heike Kalesse

Island in the western Pacific ( Long et al. 2013 ) provides unique long-term (1996–2014) observations from a suite of instruments, including vertically pointing cloud radars, radiosondes, rain gauges, and others. Data from Manus have been used to evaluate satellite observations ( Hollars et al. 2004 ) and model simulations ( Chen and Del Genio 2009 ) to estimate cloud radiative heating rates ( McFarlane et al. 2007 ; Mather and McFarlane 2009 ; Wang et al. 2010 ), and to document the cloud

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Elizabeth J. Thompson, Steven A. Rutledge, Brenda Dolan, Merhala Thurai, and V. Chandrasekar

raindrop shape as a function of diameter according to the Thurai et al. (2007) model, assuming raindrops fell at a 0° mean canting angle with a standard deviation up to 7.5° ( Huang et al. 2008 ). No sampling errors associated with actual radar measurements are included in any of the statistics or error analysis conducted in this study. Electromagnetic scattering simulation assumptions constrain all simulated radar variable ranges such that more variability or spread is expected in real radar

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