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Quanjia Zhong, Jianping Li, Lifeng Zhang, Ruiqiang Ding, and Baosheng Li

winds satellite mission to probe hurricanes and tropical convection . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 97 , 385 – 395 , . 10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00218.1 Tao , D. , and F. Zhang , 2014 : Effect of environmental shear, sea‐surface temperature, and ambient moisture on the formation and predictability of tropical cyclones: An ensemble‐mean perspective . J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. , 6 , 384 – 404 , . 10.1002/2014MS000314

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Shixuan Zhang, Zhaoxia Pu, and Christopher Velden

moisture and upper-level warming in the region around the storm center (e.g., r = 0–350 km) have been shown to be essential for rapid intensification (RI) ( Malkus and Riehl 1960 ; Holland 1997 ; Zhang and Chen 2012 ; Chen and Zhang 2013 ). Thus, VI-CTRL presents less favorable conditions for RI of Hurricane Gonzalo, compared with VI-AMV. These results help explain why VI-CTRL does not capture the RI of Hurricane Gonzalo. Fig . 15. The azimuthally averaged relative humidity (green contours in 5

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David R. Ryglicki, James D. Doyle, Yi Jin, Daniel Hodyss, and Joshua H. Cossuth

to this thermal anomaly, there is an adiabatic reactionary vertical velocity pattern, with upward motion to the right of the tilt and downward motion to the left of the tilt; however, as Frank and Ritchie (1999 , 2001 ) showed, and as demonstrated here ( Figs. 13a,b ), in the presence of moisture, vertical motion becomes collocated with the cold anomaly. Explicitly, the vertical mass flux maximum is coincident with the total condensed water of the column maximum, and the cold anomaly is

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T. Connor Nelson, Lee Harrison, and Kristen L. Corbosiero

theoretical still-air fall speed of a sonde given the density ( ρ ) profile. Density is defined as the moist ideal gas density using virtual temperature. In situations where moisture data were unavailable, temperature was used instead of virtual temperature. The still-air fall speeds from Eq. (6) can be used with Eq. (2) and a hydrostatic, or differential pressure (∂ p /∂ t ), indicated fall speed ( V f ), similar to recent studies (e.g., Wang et al. 2015 ; Stern et al. 2016 ): (7) V f = 1 ρ g ∂ p

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